Anna Irene De Luca, Nathalie Iofrida, Giovanni Gulisano and Alfio Strano
the LEADER II assessments. The LEADER II European Observatory. Brussels. Retrieved from http://ec.europa.eu/agriculture/rur/leader2/forum/docs_evaluation/marangoni_en.pdf
Navarro, F.A., Woods, M., Cejudo, E., 2015: The LEADERInitiative has been a Victim of Its Own Success. The Decline of the Bottom-Up Approach in Rural Development Programmes. The Cases of Wales and Andalusia. In: Sociologia Ruralis , Vo. 56, No. 2, pp. 270-288. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/soru.12079
Nazzaruolo, A., 2006: L’esperienza di autovalutazione del GAL Delta 2000 (The self
Subject and purpose of work: In recent years, kitchen incubators have captured increasingly larger and more sophisticated titles in the local and national press. Organised local producers have been applying for funds to build such facilities. This article aims to introduce the notion of a kitchen incubator, its functioning, as well as present its role in the local development in the food production industry.
Materials and methods: The available Polish and foreign literature on the subject in question was studied. The current study was based on the analysis and observation of the kitchen incubators which are already in operation.
Results: The investigations conducted have demonstrated that kitchen incubators constitute a very important element in the development of the local economy.
Conclusions: The operation of kitchen incubators should be monitored so as to enhance their development.
For 25 years the rural development policy has been implemented through the LEADER Approach in the EU to reduce differences between rural and urban areas, as well as to satisfy the basic needs of the population. In this paper, Extremadura is analysed, which is a Spanish region where LEADER has been applied since its inception in 1991. The objective is to assess if the distribution of rural development aids has been influenced by the diverse demographic and socioeconomic realities that Extremadura presents from the analysis of variables that represent these realities on the territory through a GIS. Following this methodology, it has been noticed that the largest investments have been executed in the most developed rural areas of the region.
Francisco Navarro, Marilena Labianca, Eugenio Cejudo, Stefano de Rubertis, Angelo Salento, Juan Carlos Maroto and Angelo Belliggiano
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 Dax, T., Strahl, W., Kirwan, J. & Maye, D. (2016). The
Importance of Animation Actions in the Operation of Hungarian Local Action Groups
The EU LEADER initiative has been running for 20 years and plays an important role in the development of European rural areas, however, in countries joining to the EU after 2004 it is still a relatively new phenomenon. In Hungary, for example, the LEADER+ programme was launched in 2005 with an experimental phase (called a "LEADER type initiative") and has developed to be a fully applied EU programme only in the current programming period. This paper explores the implementation of the LEADER programme in eastern Hungary. The examined Local Action Groups face diverse challenges concerning human, social, physical and financial capital, networks and social learning. The study investigates the opportunities and threats faced by the LAGs, with special regard to institutions, governance and applied initiatives. The roles of the LAGs within the social, economic and cultural context of given areas are examined through Lukesch's (2007) model FOG - forms of governance. The model is a tool to explore the interrelationships local partnership, local needs and local socio-cultural environment. The results of the FOG test show that the prevailing mode of governance in the examined LAGs emphasises animation actions as important elements of operation. Although the importance of animation actions is underlined by the result of the test, their presence between the initiatives is less than it should be. Good examples of animation actions are given: participatory video and a case study of its Hungarian application are introduced. Finally the role of Universities in animation actions is emphasised and closer relation of them with RD networks is called for.
cases of the LEADERInitiative and the PRODER Programme in Andalusia (Spain). European Planning Studies 26(4), 726–744. DOI: 10.1080/09654313.2018.1424118.
 Chevalier, P., Mačiulyté, J., Razafimahefa, L. & Dedeire, M. (2017). The leader programme as a model of institutional transfer: learning from its local implementation in France and Lithuania. European Countryside 9(2), 317–341. DOI: 10.1515/euco-2017-0020.
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contemporary EU governance and rural development initiatives. Rural Society, 21, 43–53.
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Nardone G, Sisto R, Lopolito A (2010): Social capital in the LEADERinitiative: a methodological
Monika Bumbalová, Ivan Takáč, Jela Tvrdoňová and Martin Valach
Austria and Ireland. European Urban and Regional Studies, 23(1), 56-68. DOI: 10.1177/0969776413490425.
 Dax, T. & Oedl-Wieser, T. (2016). Rural innovation activities as a means for changing development perspectives - An assessment of more than two decades of promoting LEADERinitiatives across the European Union. Studies in Agricultural Economics 118, 30-37. DOI: 10.7896/j.1535.
 Esparcia Pérez, J. (2000). The LEADER Programme and the Rise of Rural Development in Spain. Sociologia Ruralis, 40(2), 200 - 207. DOI: 10
Doris Marquardt, Judith Möllers and Gertrud Buchenrieder
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World Bank (Ed.) (2008). Implementation completion and Results report (IBRD-46540), on a loan in the amount of US$40 million to Romania for a Rural development project. World Bank, Environmentally and Socially Sustainable Development Sector Unit, South Central Europe Country Unit, Europe and Central Asia Region. (Report No: ICR0000611).
Economics and Rural Development.
Murdoch, J. (2000). Networks - a New Paradigm of Rural Development? Journal of Rural Studies 16(4), 407-419. Doi: 10.1016/S0743-0167(00)00022-X.
Nardone, G., Sisto, R. & Lopolito, A. (2010). Social capital in the LEADERinitiative: a methodological approach. Journal of Rural Studies 26(1), 63-72. Doi: 10.1016/j.jrurstud.2009.09.001.
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