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The paper delivers original data on specialization in property valuation services in Poland. Its aim is to identify relatively homogeneous groups of property appraisers taking into consideration the scope of services performed by them and the types of clients served. Based on the survey results, it was possible to indicate major models in property valuation services consistent with market applications, which allows us to verify the thesis on specialization in doing business in property valuation.

The research strategy approach is twofold. Firstly, we have used the agglomerative cluster method to divide the types of valuation services and appraisers’ clients in order to find groups of similar valuation services and represent the main models of business in property appraisals. Secondly, we have applied the k-means partition methods to find relatively homogenous groups of respondents, taking into account the frequency of carrying out the particular types of valuations and clients served.

As a result of our research, we present four clusters combining valuations and client types which reflect the models of property valuers’ professional activity, i.e: the market-oriented housing valuation model, market-oriented commercial valuation model, non-market-oriented judicial valuation model and non-market- oriented public valuation model. Research findings confirm the existence of three out of the four specialization clusters within the professional activity. We also extracted a group of appraisers operating on a broad scale, both when it comes to the types of services offered and clients served.


This article aims to present the diversity in the rates of fees for advertisements on selected bank buildings located in the right-of-way, as well as the manner of calculating them. The research covered fees, incurred by a selected bank brand, for advertisements placed on all outlets of the bank in the area of the entire country in terms of the location of the buildings, means of establishing fees, rate of the basic fee, as well as costs incurred by the bank for placing advertisements in the right-of-way according to the state at the end of 2014.

Currently, one can distinguish a few means of right-of-way occupation for which fees are collected, including: for the purpose of carrying out construction works, locating technical infrastructure equipment or buildings unrelated to the needs of road or traffic management, and for placing advertisements (outdoor advertising). The basic rate of payments for occupying the right-of-way by advertising results directly from the ordinances regarding roads passed by local government units or thematic regulation pertaining to national roads. The maximum basic rate is specified by law.

This paper makes it possible to determine the scale of financial burdens incurred by a bank resulting from marking the outlets, as well as the differences in determining and calculating fees for signboards occupying the areas of right-of-ways among the many local road authorities.


The grey area exists in all countries of the world. It is visible in various areas of activity, which means that it is widespread. It is a sign of the weak state institutional structures and overregulation of the economy. Traces of it are also visible on the real estate market. This paper argues that the size of the shadow economy in the real estate market is significantly undervalued. For this purpose, areas of its occurrence which had not been included in previous estimates were indicated, prepared by the Central Statistical Office and the Gdansk Institute for Market Economics. Two ways of tracking the grey zone were used: press reports and case studies.


The main goal of this paper is to present the role of individual concepts of public management in the process of real estate management in Polish municipalities. Special attention was given to New Public Management (NPM) as well as Good Governance (GG). The paper, apart from a review of literature and its critique, is based on the results of a survey conducted among municipalities belonging to the Kraków Metropolitan Area. This study demonstrates that both the NPM and the GG concepts do not constitute a benchmark model in the practice of municipal real estate management in Poland. The concepts are treated more as a set of tools from which the majority of municipalities choose only some, selected instruments.


The topic of this article is related to issues connected with public roads. The thematic scope of the work includes the presentation and analysis of the legal regulations governing the acquisition of real estate under provincial public roads. The purpose of the article is to carry out an analysis of the legal and technical regulations governing the entire process of acquiring real estate along these roads, and assessing their completeness, adequacy and coherence. The analysis was carried out in the aspect of a number of operations, technical activities and the requirements of government agencies operating in the field of public roads, in an aim to manage and carry out investments on provincial roads. The paper presents and elaborates on problems connected with the acquisition of real estate along provincial roads on two levels. The first involves the regulation of the legal status of the existing regional road network from the 1st January 1999, while the second is the implementation of new road investments within the network of provincial roads.


Where an investment decision on building work-in-progress (BWIP) is premised on the judgment of value, the technique of assessment must be accurate. The heuristic technique has not been able to achieve this goal. Frequent transactions in BWIP in Niger State necessitate the search for an alternative technique.

This paper therefore aims to:

– identify and analyze the purposes of BWIP valuations in Niger State, Nigeria,

– examine the suitability of using heuristics in determining the cost of building work-in-progress, and

– investigate the veracity of the use of the Nigerian Building and Road Research Institute (NBRRI)’s template of elemental percentage rates for the cost of incomplete buildings in the state.

Data were obtained from estate surveyors and valuers (ESVs), registered quantity surveyors in the state, the Niger State Housing Corporation and the NBRRI. The analysis showed, among others, that heuristics, although not suitable, was the most prominent technique adopted by the ESVs for costing BWIP. Similarly, the use of NBRRI’s template for costing BWIP for residential bungalows in Minna - the Niger state capital - was validated.


Real estate valuation uses 3 main approaches: income, cost and comparative. When applying the comparative method, correction coefficients based on similar real estate transactions are determined. In practice, the coefficients and similar real estate objects are usually determined by using qualitative approach based on the valuators’ experience. The paper provides an analytical method for the determination of correction coefficient, which limits subjectivity when using the comparative method for valuation. The provided analytical approach also integrates macroeconomic indicators in the calculation process. It also addresses issues when available historical real estate transaction data is limited. A machine learning approach was applied to determine the average price of real estate in the region, with the possibility of using this information to obtain correction coefficients where historical data was unavailable. Alternative research usually focuses on final price estimation of the selected real estate object; however, the valuation standard of Tegova released in 2018 does not allow for applying analytically based approaches for individual real estate object evaluation; these approaches can be used only as a supportive tool for valuators.


The leading local legislation act defining the spatial policy is the local development plan, the financing of which is the commune’s responsibility. The beneficiary of activities aimed at the transformation of the intended property use is its owner or its perpetual lessee – with lessees incurring the costs of adopting the local development plans through so-called zoning fees, the amount of which, often controversial, has become the source of numerous lawsuits. The presented problem of an outside-business and often radical change of land value corresponds to the market dilemmas in determining equivalent markets, and establishing price-setting factors and their impact on the value of real estate.

Circles of analysts and appraisers determine equivalent markets radially. This means that the analyzed or valued property is the central point of the monitored area, incorrectly “enclosed” within the geometry of a circle. Such a perception of the dispersion of transaction prices does not reflect the actual nature of the market, as evidenced by the analyses of land property values according to their planning factors, carried out as part of the present paper.

The focal point of the article is a continuous map of land value developed for properties located within the cadastral unit of Podgórze of the city of Krakow which indicates that it is not legitimate to arbitrarily take on the radial approach when designating equivalent markets, which was indirectly approved by Waldo Tobler claiming that: “Everything is related to everything else, but near things are more related than distant things” ().


We live in an information society for which the Internet, as a global system of connections between computers and, consequently, databases stored in them, plays a highly important part. Hence, more and more real property data are available. This article is devoted to the analysis of the opportunities to purchase the Register of Real Estate Prices and Values (RREPV) online from county geoportals. RREPV is one of the sources of information used in the process of real estate value estimation. Pursuant to § 74 of the Regulation on the Land and Property Register, the register is kept by the head of the county. There are 380 counties in Poland, including 66 city counties. Such a big number of administrative units in Poland, along with a great variety of different information and communication systems used for keeping RREPV, results in the fact that online access to the register data is not possible everywhere. The aim of the paper is to present the spatial layout of counties which: created the opportunity to access the National Geodetic and Cartographic Resource data via county geoportals, launched special modules for handling real estate appraisers and made it possible to purchase RREPV data online.


The Act of 21 August 1997 on Real Estate Management imposes on district governors within the management of the Treasury-owned real estates, as well as the commune head, the mayor or city mayor – in the case of the real estate resources of the commune, poviat management - to the poviat real estate resource and voivodship board, in relation to the provincial real estate resource – the obligation to undertake actions in court proceedings, particularly in cases concerning ownership or other property rights. In addition, it obliges them to submit applications for the establishment of a land register and for its updating.

In practice, there are numerous cases of negligence in the registration of such properties, in the updating of their designation and demonstration of rights that affect the legal status. For the purpose of this publication, examples of legal-surveying documentation were analyzed to indicate the most common problems encountered in Poland in the regulation process of the legal status of properties, and the typical content of maps for legal purposes was systematized. In addition, selected approaches used in the area of the registration of rights to properties in other countries of the world were indicated.