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Risk analysis in transport and logistics

Abstract

Globalization and production concentration have led to more efficient supply chain networks, which has led to the emergence of different types of risks. Although most companies have implemented special risk management programs, there may be events that can not be controlled by businesses, and unwanted consequences are not delayed.

The reason I chose the title “Risk Analysis in Transport and Logistics” is that I noticed the increasing importance of transport and logistics in the last period.

The purpose of this work is to determine the impact of risks in transport and logistics activity, and for that has been achieved a desk research, in which I have analyzed the statistical data from 2016, regarding transport services in Romania.

I think that this paper will be useful for all who want to understand the significance impact of risks in transport and logistics activity, representing a suitable source of information in this area.

Open access
Estimation of a Production Function for Philippine Retail Stores

Abstract

The purpose of this paper is the estimation of a production function for retail stores in the Philippines. A generalized Cobb-Douglas production function is utilized for this purpose. Ordinary Least Squares is used in obtaining the coefficients for labor and capital. The results show that the marginal product of labor to be higher than the marginal product of capital and the hypothesis of constant returns to scale is not rejected.

Open access
Regional Retail Sector Development in Serbia – Key Performance and Development Indicators’ Gap

Abstract

Are there significant regional differences in regional retail development in Serbia? This was the main research question at the beginning of writing this paper. The main goal of this paper was to analyse regional differences in retail development based on existing statistical data. The idea was to point out regions with underdeveloped retailing and the one with endangered retail competition. Thorough desk research has been performed. It included both literature review and data collection from available official sources. Existing retail data have been analysed. However, the lack of data at lower levels of aggregation (regional and local) prevents the authors from getting strong conclusions. In addition, the lack of data also altered the main research question, which has now become adequacy of data in the retail sector and potential solutions for that problem. The noted lack of crucial data and solutions for solving this problem were the main purpose of this paper. The main finding is that decision makers in Serbia do not have adequate information about retail network. This is a problem because it is very hard to prove anticompetitive actions or to plan (stimulate) retail development without relevant data from both government and business point of view. Retail census would help getting key indicators about development of retailing in certain regions and municipalities. However, the solution needs to be sustainable. Therefore, some legislative requirements should provide information for census update.

Open access
Explicit and Implicit Factors That Determine Private Labels’ Possible Purchase: Eyetracking and EEG Research

Abstract

Objective: This paper investigates the explicit and implicit factors affecting private-label (PL) products’ possible purchase decision for different retailers. Design: The study uses eyetracking and electroencephalography (EEG) to explore the differences in eye movement and brain activity for PL products. This article examines how approach motivation, measured by total fixation duration and by EEG asymmetry over the frontal hemisphere of the brain, predicts PL purchase decision. Findings: This study investigates implicit variables that can influence consumers’ willingness to PL purchase. The relatively greater left frontal activation (i.e., higher approach motivation) during the predecision period predicted an affirmative purchase decision in some cases. The eyetracking study did not reveal differences between women’s and men’s esthetics sensitivity toward the presented PL products. EEG research proved that consumers were not influenced by the PL product price. Originality/value: Literature lacks credible information on young buyers’ behavior in the context of PL products. This paper elaborates on PL perception, revealing the neural origins of the associated psychological processes.

Open access
Level of development of e-commerce in EU countries

Summary

E-commerce in Europe is becoming increasingly important in all market segments, and in most segments it already accounts for few or even several dozen percent of total trade. According to a report by E-commerce Europe, it has already left the US market behind in 2010. Year by year, the willingness to buy products, which until recently were not treated by many consumers as “online”, such as food products, is growing.

Considering the above, the aim of the article is to determine the level of development of e-commerce in the European Union (EU-28). In the research procedure the literature and EUROSTAT data were used. The following research methods were used for data analysis: literature analysis, the Hellwig’s method and the threshold grouping method. The analysis was carried out in two periods, i.e. in 2014 and 2018, which allowed assessing the direction of changes in the surveyed.

Open access
Comparison Shopping Agents and Czech Online Customers’ Shopping Behaviour

Abstract

The internet has changed the lifestyles and shopping behaviours of customers. Online purchasing enables people to obtain information about products and services provided more effectively and easily, with the result that home shopping has become ordinary and usual. This paper presents part of a research focusing on online shopping customers’ behaviour in the Czech Republic. The article pertains to comparison shopping agents (CPAs), a tool which provides information to customers and helps find the best offer. The research was conducted on the basis of an online questionnaire available on an internet web page. The main results confirmed a dependency between online purchasing and the use of shopping agents, which are very popular in the Czech Republic. Almost two-thirds of online shoppers use CPAs when they engage in internet shopping. The final part of the paper addresses references and customers’ reviews as an important factor for the selection of online retailer.

Open access
Statistical Analysis of the Development Indicators’ Impacts on E-Commerce of Individuals in Selected European Countries

Abstract

The aim of this paper is to analyse the influence of the development level indicators on the e-commerce, i.e. on the online purchase by individuals, in selected European countries in 2013. In the analysis, the main variable under study and all the independent variables are included as standardised. Based on nine variables, the principal component analysis with varimax rotation was performed and the two extracted factors were used as the regressors in the multiple regression analysis. In the regression model both components, Factor 1, which includes seven variables, called Prosperity, Investing in Education and IT Infrastructure, and Awareness, and Factor 2, comprised of two variables, called IT Skills, are statistically significant at the significance level of 1%. Both factors show a positive correlation with the online purchase of individuals. Inclusion and analysis of distributions and impacts of even nine independent variables, which make up two distinct factors affecting the e-commerce, make a new contribution of this work.

Open access
Analysis of Distribution Channels’ Successfulness –The Case of the Retail Chains in the Republic of Serbia

Abstract

The importance of distribution channels comes from the increasingly sophisticated consumer demands, producer’s focus on core competences, and the contribution of the distribution channels to achievement of goals at the national economy level. Due to the fact that intermediaries of distribution channel have the role to link producer and consumers, the results of their functioning have a direct impact on the mentioned partners in the channel. Therefore, the efficiency of the intermediaries directly affects the performance of related partners, producers and consumers. Retailers, as intermediaries in the channel, attracted great attention due to their leadership position and power, which proceed from direct communication with consumers. In this regard, the objective of the research presented in this paper is the analysis of the importance of distribution channels, from partners’ point of view, as well as from macro aspect, with special reference to the retailers, as the primary participants in the distribution channel, in the Republic of Serbia. As indicators of performance, authors use Return of Sale (ROS) and Return of Equity (ROE). By applying the regression analysis, the authors examine whether the performance and role of retail chain leaders in distribution channels depends on the size of the sales network, or the number of sales facilities. The survey shows that the largest retail chains in the Republic of Serbia are performing below the average for the retail sector, and that the size of their retail network has a significant impact on the achieved results.

Open access
Quasi-Public Real Estate Within The City Of Wrocław

Abstract

The study undertakes the subject of public shopping centers in Wrocław as representative of quasi-public space. Public space should enable public discussion, whereas the public events organized in malls have little to do with public debate. The users of shopping centers are usually consumers or business entities whose main goal is to improve the quality of their lives.

Public space should be available without any additional permission to use it. It should also be freely accessible and provide the opportunity for various people to congregate—this is seen as a positive feature of space that is worth visiting. Public space should also promote the notion of public property and encourage its users to express and exchange opinions. Contemporary malls serve as an attempt at providing a replacement for public space.

The study aims to represent the scale of shopping centers operating within the space of the city of Wrocław, the area they occupy and the economic consequences they entail for small entrepreneurs operating in the region where they exist.

Open access
Rebalancing the Market Power. Manufacturer and Retailer Brands in the German Food Retail Market

Abstract

The German food retail market is considered to be one of the most competitive markets worldwide. A narrow oligopoly of domestic retail chains dominates competition at the national and regional levels, driven mostly by price competition and extensive market coverage. As a result, market entrance for potential newcomers is highly restricted, even for such global players like Wal-Mart, which retreated in 2006 after nine years of substantial financial losses in Germany. There have been discernable attempts by the domestic incumbents to rebalance the traditional “task division”, affecting the range of customers choices as well as retail brands. However, within ten years the share of large retailers brands earnings in the total food retail market increased from 21.8 percent to 38.8 percent in 2012, as “house brands” optimized their assortment, increased their independence from main suppliers and squeezed out competitors. The empirical analysis presented below describes the role played by different retail brands in German food retail market as measured by their market power, and considers its political implications.

Open access