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Abstract

FISH (fluorescence in situ hybridization) analysis of the intestinal tract of conventional mice, following 14-day supplementation of feed with host non-specific (porcine) strain L. reuteri L2/6, showed in the presence of complex microbiota, a significant increase in the counts of representatives of the genera Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium, and a significant decrease in the representatives of the genera Clostridium, Bacteroides and Enterobacteriaceae. At the same time, the supplemented strain stimulated the population of caecal lactobacilli of the species L. reuteri. These results demonstrated that the L. reuteri L2/6 colonised the jejunum, ileum and caecum and modulated the investigated intestinal microbiota.

Abstract

Entrepreneurial spirit plays an increasingly important role in the economic sphere, and universities are meant to play a central role in this process, where the main objective is the continuous development and mediation of the knowledge increasingly geared to the applications through innovation and patenting a secure platform for employment and well-being growth. The Universities have to take a position in if/and how they want to grow into a so-called “University of Entrepreneurship” which is characterized by a high degree of openness to the surrounding society and here we are talking, especially, about, the business sector in Romania. This evolution of expectations for the social role of universities has resulted from increased and recent interest in entrepreneurship and innovation of areas as research and theory of the business environment. The experience gained as teachers indicates that education and entrepreneurship education should include different theories and methodology than those applied in the usual way. The theory of traditional management and microeconomic models could even be a barrier to new thinking and change and, therefore, to the implementation of modern entrepreneurial actions. We want this article to be a source of inspiration for educational institutions and to have a positive contribution to research in business education and to be applicable in business decision-making.

Abstract

Mittelstand companies are the backbone of the German economy: they constitute the vast majority of enterprises in Germany, contribute to employment, and are a pillar of the German apprenticeship system. The specific ownership–management structure of the Mittelstand used to go hand in hand with social, intergenerational, and regional responsibility. However, today’s very small and young entrepreneurs do not perceive themselves as Mittelstand; many entrepreneurs do not intend to employ others, and structural changes in the economy have also resulted in fundamental changes of the Mittelstand. This paper explores the characteristics of the Mittelstand and its future, asking whether Mittelstand will continue to play a fundamental role in the social market economy in Germany.

Abstract

Entrepreneurship has emerged as an essential instrument for social and economic development in both industrialized and developing countries. However, while the phenomenon spreads all over the world, the intention of young generations to become self-employed differs according to country context. In this regard, the paper investigates the differences in the levels of entrepreneurial intentions and their antecedents of university students from Turkey and Kosovo. With the purpose of measuring such differences, structured questionnaires based on Shapero’s model were distributed within the main universities in Ankara and Prishtina. The findings indicate that there is a statistically significant difference between Turkey and Kosovo in determination of entrepreneurial intentions.

Abstract

Entrepreneurship understood as a manifestation of economic activity is an issue widely discussed in literature, especially in the field of economics. Today, a large part of society is involved in establishing and running a business, hence the shaping of entrepreneurial behaviors gains importance among all age groups, especially young people. The main objective of the conducted research was to examine the interest in starting their own business by students and to verify whether the direction of their studies or role in the group affects the students’ willingness to start a business and whether a family member runs a business influences this interest and moreover, whether capital and the idea are the two main criteria conditioning the decision.. The conclusions were based on a study, i.e. (mainly) the cross-analysis of data collected as part of a survey conducted among students of the University of Information Technology and Management in Rzeszów.

Abstract

The present research, based on a national representative survey analysis of SMEs (that is, small and medium enterprises) from Romania, focuses on the main factors influencing companies’ outsourcing. It considers the following dimensions of outsourcing: organizational characteristics, environmental characteristics, relational capabilities, and institutional networks. The results suggest that the younger the SMEs and the more stable their relationship with local institutions, the more likely is for them to adopt outsourcing solutions. Moreover, those SMEs that have secondary offices and have some cooperation with the state also rely on outsourcing. Our results suggest that sector membership also proves to be a signifficant factor in outsourcing. We ffind that the highest percentage of outsourcing was done in construction, industry as well as hotels and restaurants sectors.

Abstract

General problems who experienced by some large hospitals in Indonesia weakness caused by factors other than internal (internal weakness), especially of facilities and human resources who is still relatively less and still the weak competitiveness of organization (low competitive advantage) and combined with the terrier such as qualities and support of leadership. The weak in the field of organizational communication on hospital in anticipation regional and international free market competition. The gap medical staff functional (MSF), between in government hospital and private hospital has resulted in the role of an assignment with the condition a very complicated. Specialized doctors tend to be part time in government hospital, place official work. The problems need to examined the more distant is how to create commitment staff functional medical and so far, of needed harmonious relations. Organizational communication to create cooperation and a good relationship and pattern leadership in managing the hospital to medical staff functional and non-medical is a thing also become the adhesive for the hospital system that could increase commitment. This study aims to assess empirical pertaining to with a variable in leadership styles and organizational communication impact they may have on organizational commitment of MSF. A method of survey was used in this study, while the kind of research is considered to be explanatory research. Such data was gathered through 43 MSF and analyzed using Partial Least Square (PLS). This research result show that variable of leadership styles could to increase an organizational communication. Leadership styles significant and could influence on organizational commitment, and organizational communication the influence on organizational commitment as significant.

Abstract

Understanding the schemes of Small and Medium Enterprises (SME’s) managerial capability is becoming important aspects today. Implementing proper strategies and internal policy may create a significant change in SME’s performance. Total Quality Management (TQM) has been being a one of specific measurement on organizational performance. This research was proposed to understand the factor that can affect the TQM’s performance in SME’s by identifying the two factors that can change it. Based on the recent studies, the developed model was employed PLSSEM to analyze the data by total respondent 95 respondent consist of owner and manager. The sample was taken in the area of Sasirangan SME’s in Banjarmasin, Kalimantan Selatan province, Indonesia. Sasirangan is a local fabric developed by its ancestor. The population of Sasirangan SME’s was huge in amount. The results of these studies indicate that both motivation and employee performance can increase the TQM in the SME’s which one of them has a more significant effect. The complete description of finding in this research will be discussed in this research.

Abstract

By the late 1960s, real effective taxation of income from individual firm ownership in Sweden approached 100 percent. A series of tax reforms has reversed this situation. This paper (1) elucidates the thinking behind the vision of creating a largely market-based system without wealthy capitalists and how that vision guided tax policy; (2) outlines and evaluates the changes in the tax code since the late 1970s, their empirical and intellectual basis, and their implications for the taxation of individual firm ownership; and (3) compares the size of the largest individual wealth holdings in the mid-1960s to their equivalents in the 2010s and discusses how the general public’s views have changed regarding sizeable income streams and wealth from business activity. Today, the tax code favors already wealthy individuals, while high labor income taxation combined with a high valuation of existing assets renders wealth accumulation difficult for persons with no initial wealth.

Abstract

In today’s economy, which is extremely challenging and competitive at the same time, many people want to have their own business and manage their own incomes. Entrepreneurship is a key driver of today’s economy. This observation underscores the need to ensure adequate entrepreneurial education, in line with the demands on the labor market. The purpose and role of this experience are to educate students to understand the entrepreneurial activity, to develop their entrepreneurial skills and competencies and the intention to run a business. The learning environment is crucial for a successful entrepreneur and he can generate change. This article describes experiences from developing and using the entrepreneurial learning environment in high schools with a technological profile. In this study 1200 students from three technological high schools were observed, the behavior and the results obtained after studying the specialized economic modules were analyzed. Our goal was to identify the main challenges of these students. In our study, we used a mixed-method: questionnaires, topic-based interviews, direct and participatory observation as data collection methods. According to our results, the main challenges were: difficulties in understanding new entrepreneurial notions due to traditional teaching methods, lack of ICT skills, lack of team learning principles and inefficient communication within a group.