R. Nemcová, M. Maďar, S. Gancarčíková and J. Pistl
FISH (fluorescence in situ hybridization) analysis of the intestinal tract of conventional mice, following 14-day supplementation of feed with host non-specific (porcine) strain L. reuteri L2/6, showed in the presence of complex microbiota, a significant increase in the counts of representatives of the genera Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium, and a significant decrease in the representatives of the genera Clostridium, Bacteroides and Enterobacteriaceae. At the same time, the supplemented strain stimulated the population of caecal lactobacilli of the species L. reuteri. These results demonstrated that the L. reuteri L2/6 colonised the jejunum, ileum and caecum and modulated the investigated intestinal microbiota.
Entrepreneurship understood as a manifestation of economic activity is an issue widely discussed in literature, especially in the field of economics. Today, a large part of society is involved in establishing and running a business, hence the shaping of entrepreneurial behaviors gains importance among all age groups, especially young people. The main objective of the conducted research was to examine the interest in starting their own business by students and to verify whether the direction of their studies or role in the group affects the students’ willingness to start a business and whether a family member runs a business influences this interest and moreover, whether capital and the idea are the two main criteria conditioning the decision.. The conclusions were based on a study, i.e. (mainly) the cross-analysis of data collected as part of a survey conducted among students of the University of Information Technology and Management in Rzeszów.
Entrepreneurship has emerged as an essential instrument for social and economic development in both industrialized and developing countries. However, while the phenomenon spreads all over the world, the intention of young generations to become self-employed differs according to country context. In this regard, the paper investigates the differences in the levels of entrepreneurial intentions and their antecedents of university students from Turkey and Kosovo. With the purpose of measuring such differences, structured questionnaires based on Shapero’s model were distributed within the main universities in Ankara and Prishtina. The findings indicate that there is a statistically significant difference between Turkey and Kosovo in determination of entrepreneurial intentions.
Gabriel Croitoru, Mircea Constantin Duica, Dorin Claudiu Manolache and Mihaela Ancuta Banu
Entrepreneurial spirit plays an increasingly important role in the economic sphere, and universities are meant to play a central role in this process, where the main objective is the continuous development and mediation of the knowledge increasingly geared to the applications through innovation and patenting a secure platform for employment and well-being growth. The Universities have to take a position in if/and how they want to grow into a so-called “University of Entrepreneurship” which is characterized by a high degree of openness to the surrounding society and here we are talking, especially, about, the business sector in Romania. This evolution of expectations for the social role of universities has resulted from increased and recent interest in entrepreneurship and innovation of areas as research and theory of the business environment. The experience gained as teachers indicates that education and entrepreneurship education should include different theories and methodology than those applied in the usual way. The theory of traditional management and microeconomic models could even be a barrier to new thinking and change and, therefore, to the implementation of modern entrepreneurial actions. We want this article to be a source of inspiration for educational institutions and to have a positive contribution to research in business education and to be applicable in business decision-making.
Mittelstand companies are the backbone of the German economy: they constitute the vast majority of enterprises in Germany, contribute to employment, and are a pillar of the German apprenticeship system. The specific ownership–management structure of the Mittelstand used to go hand in hand with social, intergenerational, and regional responsibility. However, today’s very small and young entrepreneurs do not perceive themselves as Mittelstand; many entrepreneurs do not intend to employ others, and structural changes in the economy have also resulted in fundamental changes of the Mittelstand. This paper explores the characteristics of the Mittelstand and its future, asking whether Mittelstand will continue to play a fundamental role in the social market economy in Germany.
The purpose of this paper is to show the extent to which state interference in the economy affects the conditions of functioning for small and medium-sized enterprises in economies of the former eastern bloc which have already gone through the EU accession process. The data on SMEs’ situation were taken from the Fact Sheets of the EU program Small Business Act. Due to the fact that the variables proposed to describe the business environment differ significantly it was necessary to standardize them. The zero unitarization method was applied to rank countries properly. Special attention in this paper is devoted to Poland and the situation of businesses operating in this country. The research has identified some areas requiring urgent changes. It is crucial to improve the situation so that companies can play a proper role in the economy. A country which could be an example of good solutions that support business development is also described.
Bojan Leković, Miodrag Petrović and Nemanja Berber
The subject of this research represents analysis of internationalisation activity of early-stage entrepreneurs in South East Europe region (SEE). The goal of this study is to determine characteristics of export oriented entrepreneurs from SEE region through the study of factors influencing international orientation. Geographical area of this research consists of countries from the South East Europe region. The research sample was formed on the basis of GEM - Global Individual Level Data, covering six countries (Slovenia, Croatia, Hungary, Romania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, and FYR of Macedonia), 12027 respondents of which 645 export-oriented entrepreneurs were identified. Collected data are processed using the software package for statistical analysis. With the help of Ordinal Logistic regression, significant influence of individual factors on the international orientation of entrepreneurs was identified. Research results showed that entrepreneurial motives, entrepreneurial KSA’s, innovation and new technology have a positive relationship with internationalization activity. One of the significant limitations of this paper is the lower Nagelkerk coefficient, which is characteristic for social phenomena. Bearing in mind the fact that this research trying to explain entrepreneurial behaviour, lower coefficients can be very meaningfull.
Bosnia and Herzegovina (BiH) has a relatively low level of entrepreneurial activity as evidenced by GEM reports but also has an economic structure in which SMEs account for about 99% of the total number of enterprises. The goal of this paper was to examine the level of entrepreneurial orientation (EO) and influence of EO on business performances of SMEs in the Republic of Srpska (RS), one of the two BiH entities, in which the empirical research was done. We have used adapted Covin & Slevin (1989) version of the questionnaire. We found out that only 12.28% of sampled SMEs have all three dimensions of EO pronounced. The least pronounced dimension is risk-taking and the most pronounced dimension is proactiveness. Our research did not confirm the impact of EO on selected indicators of business performances.
An ageing population means a growing number of healthy older people with human capital, financial resources, and time available to contribute to economic activities. However, the economic potential of older people remains mostly underused, which leads to the question, how to make best use of the underused. One way would be fostering senior entrepreneurship. The paper discusses which factors may positively influence or hinder the self-employment of older people. Overall, attention will be drawn to the relevance of older people in the field of business and entrepreneurial economics. From an economic point of view, it seems necessary not only to focus on young people but also to take into account the large and still growing economic potential of the elderly. There seems to be a treasure in waiting.
There are two competing hypothesizes on whether firms that are part of a business group should pay higher or lower dividends. Under one hypothesis, that can have different theoretical assumptions, firms that are a part of a business group should pay higher dividends. In contrast, if the pecking order hypothesis holds, firms that operate within a business group should pay lower dividends. The purpose of this paper is to examine the effect of group affiliation of Croatian firms, which are listed on the Zagreb Stock Exchange, on their propensity to pay dividends. Two panel data models were used in line with recent literature and the results of the study show some evidence that the pecking order theory was followed by Croatian firms. From this result the conclusion is that Croatian firms are more likely to pay dividends if they are not part of a business group.