Two very well-known tests for normality, the Kolmogorov-Smirnov and the Shapiro- Wilk tests, are considered. Both of them may be normalized using Johnson’s (1949) SB distribution. In this paper, functions for normalizing constants, dependent on the sample size, are given. These functions eliminate the need to use non-standard statistical tables with normalizing constants, and make it easy to obtain p-values for testing normality.
Communication Quarterly , 18 (3), 307–343. https://doi.org/10.1177/0893318904270744 Lilliefors, H. W. (1967). On the Kolmogorov-Smirnovtest for normality with mean and variance unknown. Journal of the American Statistical Association , 62 (318), 399–402. https://doi.org/10.2307/2283970 Liu, Y., Venkatanathan, J., Goncalves, J., Karapanos, E., & Kostakos, V. (2014). Modeling what friendship patterns on Facebook reveal about personality and social capital. ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction , 21 (3), 1–20. https://doi.org/10.1145/2617572 Marticotte, F
the data were gathered by Ipsos using a questionnaire. Following the general presentation of the results, the data were tested using the one-way Chi-square test to examine the basic sample characteristics and their influence on the results. The Kolmogorov-Smirnovtest was used for data distribution, the Kruskal-Wallis test was chosen to test the dependencies of the chosen factors, and the post-hoc test was used to understand, which factors had some influence and what type of the influence it was. Finally, the discussion of the results is presented with several
Based on QAD (quality of accounting data) information it is possible to determine how the company is able to manage its economic activities. The basic element is the level of QAD perceived by users of accounting information. This article describes using the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) to get an overview to the quality of accounting information. Then there is used statistical methods T-test and Kolmogorov-Smirnov test to set the differences between QAD in audited and unaudited companies. The first step is to define the various criteria which adversely affect the quality of accounting data and then their assignment to groups according to the context. Subsequently, on the basis of Saaty’s method determine the weights of the criteria in each group and then by using the AHP method determine their importance. Then the quality of accounting data in 71 companies is determined and the differences between accounting data quality of audited companies and accounting data quality of unaudited companies are detected.
Anemia is a common complication among the patients with end-stage kidney disease. Management of anemia is influenced by several factors: iron deficiency, subtherapeutic dosage of erythropoietin, microinflammation, vitamin D deficiency, increased iPTH levels and inadequate hemodialysis. The aim of the study was to examine impact of dialysis modality on blood hemoglobin level as well as status of iron, status of vitamin D, hemodialysis adequacy and erythropoietin dose. The study included 120 patients which were divided into two groups: the group of patients treated with hemodiafiltration and the group of patients treated with standard hemodialysis. For statistical analysis Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, Student’s t-test and Mann-Whitney U-test were used. Blood hemoglobin level and parameters of hemodialysis adequacy (Kt/V index, spKt/V index, URR index), hematocrit ad protein catabolic rate (nPCR) were statisticaly significant lower in patients treated with regular hemodialysis compared to patients treated with regular hemodiafiltration. Serum ferritin level, C-reactive protein level and average monthly dose of intravenous iron were higher in the patients treated with regular hemodialysis compared to patients treated with hemodiafiltration. Patients treated with hemodiafiltration have lower grade of microinflammation, better iron status and better control of anemia compared to the patients treated with regular hemodialysis. Dialysis modality is an important factor that influences management of anemia in the patients with end-stage kidney disease.
Background: General concept of motivation, which include the motivational techniques and human resources management as a prerequisite for the most important intangible asset is related to the company performance.
Objectives: we build on the conceptual model examining the respondents’ attitudes about the influence of various parameters on better business performance and work atmosphere. In addition, we also examine the attitudes towards the impact of motivation, company management, and communication on employee satisfaction.
Methods/Approach: Difference in the perception of essential parameters such as motivation, communication, leadership model, and personnel management within a company, over groups of respondents differentiated by gender and age is tested using Kolmogorov-Smirnov test.
Results: The results obtained by this research conducted from an employee point of view, detect the difference in the perception of the parameters of motivation, communication, leadership and personnel management, and their impact on employee satisfaction.
Conclusions: Our empirical research results clearly pinpoint the link between successful application of motivational techniques, quality of the leadership and employee satisfaction.
Human resources are the most significant resource of a company; this is especially true for small and medium enterprises (SMEs) in which they create the company’s competitive advantage because of their uniqueness. Human resources manage other resources and are responsible for the efficiency and success of the organization. The main goal of this research is to determine whether and to what extent the recruitment and selection of human resources are in correlation with the performance of SMEs. The research was conducted in SMEs in the Herzegovina Region in the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina in April 2019. An original questionnaire was created for the survey, within which top managers views on recruitment and selection of human resources were collected as well as the four-perspective performance of the business based on the Balanced Scorecard model. SPSS 20.0 was used for data analysis. Descriptive measurements used for data analysis include mean, standard deviation, and mode. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov test was used to test distribution normality. To test the correlation of variables and to determine the significance of differences, the Pearson correlation coefficient and t-test for independent samples were used. The level of significance was set to p = 0.05. The research results showed the correlation between the studied variables and the correlation of recruitment and selection of human resources and the performance of SMEs viewed from all four perspectives. A limitation of the research is the sample size and the sampling method. The results can be applied in the human resource management of SMEs.
The article presents the influence of measuring methods of surfaces topography evaluation. Surface topography was measured using a mechanical, contact method by Hommel Tester T-8000-R60 profilometer (Gdynia Maritime University) and using the contactless, optical method by Olympus Lext OLS4100 Confocal Laser Scanning Microscope (Gdynia Maritime University). A pattern of roughness grade 4 sample was studied (standards PN-58/M-02425 (Ra=10 µm, Rz=40 µm)). Seven measurements were made on each of devices, resulting in a more accurate stereometric image of the sample surface. The area of the test was 1.5×1.5 mm. The radius of the edge of the blade imaging the surface used in the contact method was 2 µm. In the case of the optical method, the test sample surface was subjected to a laser light 405 nm long. This article describes the principle of used measuring instrument operation and their advantages and disadvantages. The results and descriptive statistics (Mann–Whitney U test, Kolmogorov–Smirnov test) of surface altitude parameters, such as Sa, Sp, Sq, Sv, Sz. There were statistically significant differences in topography values between measurements by T-8000 profilometer and Confocal Laser Scanning Microscope. It was noted that the values of the parameters Sa, Sq are higher with the T-8000 profilometer as a measuring device. The parameters Sp, Sv, Sz have a higher value, when measured on a Confocal Laser Scanning Microscope.
Due to the dynamic and inter-connected internal and external environments of the present digital age, organizations are faced with increased challenges to achieve enduring success. After reviewing the major management theories with an organizational focus, and the changes brought with the new ISO 9001:2015 Quality Management Systems International Standard Edition, the hypotheses that to succeed in the digital age organizations must monitor the organizational context, identify risks and opportunities, and manage change effectively, are presented. A worldwide survey was carried out among IRCA registered auditors concerning ISO 9001:2015 certified organizations, and by using a quantitative methodology (sample normality was confirmed through Kolmogorov-Smirnov test and the hypothesis were tested by using Pearson correlation coefficient). The results of this research highlight the need to properly monitor the organizational (internal and external) context and identify the key issues that affect the organizations ability to deliver quality products and satisfy their customers and key stakeholders, and to plan, design, implement and control change in an effective and timely manner. These results support the notion that organizations should adopt appropriate organizational models for the present digital age, with emphasis on knowledge management and horizontal customer perspectives, willing to scan the environment, identify risk and opportunities and take timely and suitable actions.
The aim of the paper is to widen knowledge about motivation of elite, recreational athletes and non-athletes. Participants from the elite athletes group (n = 35, 16.7 ± .70 years old) were football players of the Slovak national team. Recreational athletes (n = 31, 16.8 ± .80 years old) and non-athletes (n = 29, 15.7 ± .60 years old) are visiting Grammar School in Zvolen. D-M-V standardized questionnaire was used to determine performance motivation. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov's test disconfirmed the null hypothesis on the normality of data. We used the non-parametric Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U tests to determine the statistical significance of the differences. The results showed that there were significant (p .0.01) differences with large effect size (η2 ≥ .14) in all the three (the performance motives scale, the anxiety inhibiting performance scale and the anxiety supporting performance scale) dimensions among the research groups. The motivation of elite athletes is significantly higher (p = .048; r = .25) compared to the recreational athletes. Also, compared to the non-athletes, the level of performance motivation is significantly higher (p = .002; r = .51) in the elite athletes. Based on the results of the study we can formulate the statement that the level of performance motivation is contingent on the level of sport activity.