This article describes the fuzzy classification system developed by the authors and that is particularly applicable to bioinformatics data classification. The description focuses on the following steps in the system: 1) Data preprocessing; 2) Classifier training and construction of the rule base; 3) Classification of new records and 4) Evaluation of the results; it also explains the details of processes in each step as well as the processes of missing data replacement, reduction of the number of alternatives and functions, construction of membership functions and stretching of the induced rules. The article concludes with a justification of the methods and algorithms chosen for each process of the system.
Technology-Based Sheet Metal Classification and Coding System
Group technology (GT) concept uses design similarity measure to identify the most similar design and retrieve a useful process plan. One of the existing formal methods of machine parts classifying for the group technology applications is the coding and classification. The researchers have developed many different GT coding schemes, which very precisely describe the design characteristics of the parts, but many of them do not explicitly describe the process plan. The paper presents a new approach to the sheet metal part coding and classification with plan-based attributes implementation in accordance with the technical standard STN 226001.
Tatjana Roš, Branislava Gajić, Milana Ivkov-Simić and Zorica Gajinov
Basal cell carcinoma is a slow-growing, malignant epidermal tumor predominantly affecting sun exposed areas in Caucasians, accounting for up to 80% of all diagnosed skin cancers, with a rising incidence. Chronic UV radiation, in association with constitutional factors, plays the main role in its etiology. Inappropriate activation of the hedgehog signaling pathway seems to be a key pathogenesis mechanism. Basal cell carcinoma metastases are extremely rare, but it is a locally invasive tumor that can cause significant destruction of the surrounding tissues, with their functional and esthetic impairment. There are four main clinical types of basal cell carcinoma, although clinical classification is of poor prognostic significance. Preselection of suspicious lesions and treatment planning include noninvasive diagnostic techniques: dermoscopy, confocal microscopy and ultrasoud imaging, yet histopathology remains the “gold standard” of basal cell carcinoma diagnosis. In terms of the histological growth pattern, which is essential for the prognosis, basal cell carcinoma may be divided into circumscribed or diffuse types. Surgical excision is considered to be a first line treatment option, but there are numerous less invasive treatment modalities for low-risk basal cell carcinoma. Prevention strategies are focused on behavioral modifications, regular follow up and use of chemopreventive agents in high-risk patients.
Khair Fadel Merei Al Junidi, Mirjana Paravina, Vuka Katić and Pasxalina Mitsa
Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most common malignant tumor of the skin. This study was conducted to analyze patients with BCC, their age and sex distribution, occupation, site distribution of tumors, clinical types, and histopathological characteristics of lesions. Based on the data obtained from the Histopathological Registry, a clinical and histopathological analysis of the surgically excised BCCs was performed.
The study included 100 randomly selected patients out of 263 consecutive patients with histopathologically diagnosed BCC at the Institute of Pathology of the Clinical Center in Niš in the period of 15 months. The sex ratio was 1.4:1 in favor of men (p<0.05). Two thirds of patients were over the age of 60 (p<0.0001). The average age of patients was 66.6 ± 12.2 years (range 23 - 90). In agreement with the age distribution, 53 patients were retired (mostly retired farmers), 12 were workers, 14 farmers, 12 without permanent employment, 5 were housewives, and 4 clerks. A substantial majority of 61% of examinees lived in the country (p<0.001). The employment status was related to the age of examinees, but also with the altered demographic structure in the country: many workers lived in the country, or returned to the country after retirement.
BCC was commonly found on the face (77%), and rarely on the trunk (11%) and extremities (2%).
There were no data about exposition to X-rays or chemicals (except for pesticides and insecticides), scars resulting from burns or genodermatoses. In 87% of cases, BCC was significantly most often found at sites continually exposed to the sun (head including face and scalp, and neck). The most commonly diagnosed was the nodular type (57%), then the superficial (7%), ulcerative (5%), ulcero-sclerotic (4%), pigmented (1%), and morpheaform (1%). In 27% of cases, there were no data about the histopathological type of BCC in the Histopathological Registry, based on which accurate histological type of BCC could have been established. Based on histopathological analysis, apart from the nodular (40%), other types were rarely diagnosed, like the adenoid (12%) (p<0.0001), mixed types (nodular-adenoid, nodular-adenoid-fibroblastic and mixed) (9%), superficial (7%), fibroblastic (2%), infiltrative (1%), pigmented (1%), and morpheaform (1%). Surgical excision is the gold standard in the treatment of BCC: conventional, conducted in our patients, and Mohs micrographic surgery, which takes an important place in the treatment of high-risk BCCs. In 6% of cases, the tumor process was found in the margins of the excision.
In conclusion: Basal cell carcinoma was more common in males than in females. Significantly more patients with excised basal cell carcinoma lived in the country. An age-related increase in the number of patients with BCC has been established, and most patients with excised basal cell carcinomas belonged to the age group of 61 to 81 years of age. In most patients the tumor site was on the face, whereas clinically and histopathologically, nodular type was the most common.
Daniela Dübravková-Michálková, Monika JanišOvá, Jiří Kolbek, Róbert Šuvada, Viktor Virók and Mária Zaliberová
Dry Grasslands in the Slovenský Kras MTS (Slovakia) and the Aggteleki-karszt MTS (Hungary) — A Comparison of Two Classification Approaches
The paper brings numerical classification of 48 new phytosociological relevés of dry grassland vegetation from the Slovenský kras Mts and the Aggteleki-karszt Mts located on the border between Slovakia and Hungary (Central Europe). We performed a comparison of two classification approaches (an unsupervised method - modified TWINSPAN, and a supervised approach - electronic expert system based on formal definitions of associations), which were applied on the same dataset. Four associations were distinguished: Campanulo divergentiformis-Festucetum pallentis Zólyomi (1936) 1966, Poo badensis-Caricetum humilis (Dostál 1933) Soó ex Michálková in Janišová et al. 2007, Alysso heterophylli-Festucetum valesiacae (Dostál 1933) Kliment in Kliment et al. 2000 and Festuco rupicolae-Caricetum humilis Klika 1939. A newly recorded stand of the rare Stipetum tirsae Meusel 1938 association is characterised. What is more, we established a neotype of the Alysso heterophylli-Festucetum valesiacae association.
Vladica Čudić, Dragica Kisić, Dragoslava Stojiljković and Aleksandar Jovović
Ash From Thermal Power Plants as Secondary Raw Material
The basic characteristic of thermal power plants in the Republic of Serbia is that they use low-grade brown coal (lignite) as a fuel. Depending on the location of coal mines, lignite may have different properties such as heating value, moisture, and mineral content, resulting in different residue upon combustion. Because of several million tonnes of ash and slag generated every year, their granularmetric particle size distribution, and transport and disposal methods, these plants have a negative impact on the environment. According to the waste classification system in the Republic of Serbia, ash and slag from thermal power plants are classified as hazardous waste, but with an option of usability. The proposed revision of waste legislation in Serbia brings a number of simple and modern solutions. A procedure is introduced which allows for end-of-waste criteria to be set, clarifying the point where waste ceases to be waste, and thereby introducing regulatory relief for recycled products or materials that represent low risk for the environment. The new proposal refocuses waste legislation on the environmental impacts of the generation and management of waste, taking into account the life cycle of resources, and develops new waste prevention programmes. Stakeholders, as well as the general public, should have the opportunity to participate in the drawing up of the programmes, and should have access to them.
This study focuses on mesic and xeric grasslands of mostly secondary origin, and that are influenced by human activity. Mesic grasslands are traditionally used for hay-making, and xeric ones for pastures. Over the last 20 years, livestock farming in Bulgaria has significantly declined so that less grass is needed. Many types of grasslands are no longer used and lots of abandoned fields can be found nowadays in Bulgaria. The analyses in this study are based on 868 releves collected on xeric and mesic grasslands according to the methodological approach of Braun- Blanquet. As a result, five alliances within two classes are recognized: the class Festuco-Brometea, represented by three alliances, namely Cirsio-Brachypodion pinnati, Chrysopogono-Danthonion calycinae and Festucion valesiacae, and the class Molinio-Arrhenatheretea, represented by two alliances, namely Arrhenatherion elatioris and Cynosurion cristati. The majority of the managed grasslands are situated in close proximity to settlements. Most of the abandoned areas (30%) are found within Cirsio-Brachypodion alliance. These grasslands are characterized by the highest values of total cover of vegetation. They are located in the most distant and least accessible areas. If use is not resumed, all the abandoned grasslands will be under threat of extinction in the near future. At the same time, many arable lands have been abandoned and turned into grasslands by the processes of secondary succession.
The Tall-Herb and Tall-Grass Plant Communities of the Class Mulgedio-Aconitetea in the Subalpine Belt of the Krivánska Malá Fatra MTS (Slovakia)
The following paper reports the results of phytosociological research of tall-herb and tall-herb plant communities within the class Mulgedio-Aconitetea in the subalpine belt of the Krivánska Malá Fatra Mts. The data set of 209 relevés was sampled and analysed using numerical classification and ordination. Major ecological gradients were interpreted using Ellenberg's indicator values and the Shannon-Wiener diversity index. Ten associations within five alliances were distinguished and characterised: Aconitetum firmi, Digitali ambiguae-Calamagrostietum arundinaceae, Helianthemo grandiflorae-Calamagrostietum arundinaceae, Potentillo aurei-Calamagrostietum arundinaceae, Allio victorialis-Calamagrostietum villosae, Festucetum carpaticae, Adenostylo alliariae-Athyrietum alpestris, Aconito firmi-Adenostyletum alliariae, Geranio robertiani-Delphinietum elati and Aconito firmi-Rumicetum alpini. Relationships between the floristic composition of the communities and environmental variables were analysed by canonical correspondence analysis.
Jiří Kolbek, Milan Valachovič and Katarína Mišíková
During May, 2013, the vegetation on city walls has been studied in five old royal mining towns of Central Slovakia (Banská Belá, Banská Štiavnica, Kremnica, Nová Baňa, and Pukanec). In the four last-named towns, phytocoenological material was recorded according to the Braun-Blanquet method, providing 41 relevés. Analysis of data (Twinspan , DCA) grouped the relevés into four clusters: ass. Cymbalarietum muralis, Corydalidetum luteae, Asplenietum rutae-murarie-trichomanis, and the most hemerobic community dominated by Chelidonium majus. All communities are generally rather heterogeneous, with a large range of number of species and with frequent participation of accessory plants. In the observed localities, 22 epilithic mosses and 2 liverworts were recorded: the most common species appears Encalypta streptocarpa, Homalothecium sericeum, Tortula muralis, Hypnum cupressiforme, Schistidium apocarpum agg., and Bryum caespiticium.