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Rarely do twins play active and significant roles in politics. Yet in 2006 President of the Republic of Poland, Lech Kaczyński, designated his twin brother Jarosław to be prime minister. The aim of the current publication is to analyse the political activity of Lech and Jarosław Kaczyński in the context of the founding of PiS and its functioning. Their position inside the party is undisputed. Moreover, as there is no opposition inside the party and Jarosław Kaczyński achieves spectacular electoral results, his legitimisation as autonomous leader of the party is strengthened even further.

Rodzinnego. Warszawa, wyd. IPiN, 1992, s.138-160. 8. Kokoszka A. Zaburzenia nerwicowe. Postępowanie w praktyce ogólnolekarskiej. Kraków, Medycyna Praktyczna, 1998. 9. Jarema M. red., Zaburzenia nerwicowe w praktyce lekarza POZ. Warszawa, wyd. PZWL, 2018, s.11-12. 10. Perzyński J. Profesor Mieczysław Kaczyński 1906-1985. Postępy Psychiatr Neurol. 1992, tom I, Nr 3, s. 233-237. 11. Perzyński J. Struktura i dynamika zespołów nerwicowych inicjujących proces schizofreniczny. Praca doktorska. Akademia Medyczna. Lublin, 1977. 12. Kaczyński M. Symptomatologia wczesnej schizofrenii

oceans [at] Proceedings, International Symposium on Blue Economy Initiative for Green Growth, Massachussets Institute of Technology and Korean Maritime Institute, Seoul, Korea, May 7, 2009. Jung B. - Blue Economy as a new Growth Strategy in Korea [at] Proceedings, International Symposium on Blue Economy Initiative for Green Growth, Korean Maritime Institute, Seoul, Korea, May 7, 2009. Kaczynski V., Brosnan I., Leschine T. - The Future of the Arctic: Major issues and national policies of the five coastal Arctic nations regarding the development and protection of the

Araloff, Simon (2005): Kaczyński Brothers: Movie Stars That Turned Politicians, (23 September): available at (27 October 2019). BBC Monitoring (2018): Positions of Polish Ruling Party’s Top Politicians assessed (8 June): available at (27 October 2019). CEIC Data (2018): Poland Unemployment Rate: available at (27 October 2019). CBOS (2014

REFERENCES 1. Chen W.Q., (2000), On the general solution for piezothermoelasticity for transverse isotropy with application, Journal of Applied Mechanics , 67, 705–711. 2. Fabrikant V.I. (1989), Applications of Potential Theory in Mechanics: A Selection of New Results , Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht. 3. Fabrikant V.I. (1991), Mixed Boundary Value Problems of Potential Theory and Their Applications in Engineering , Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht. 4. Kaczyński A. (2014), Thermal stress analysis of a three-dimensional anticrack in a

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., Cano R., Wincheski R., Stelter C., Grimsley B., Working D., Siochi E. (2016), 3-D printing of multifunctional carbon nanotube yarn reinforced components, Additive Manufacturing , 12, 38–44. 5. Harrass M., Friedrich K., Almajid A.A . (2010), Tribological behavior of selected engineering polymers under rolling contact, Tribology International , 43, 635-646. 6. Kaczyński R., Wilczewska I., A. Sfiridienok (2014) Peculiarities of the wear mechanism of polymers reinforced with unidirectional carbon fibers, Friction and Wear , 35(6), 449-454. 7. Kumar S

., Kaczyński P. 2010. Pozostałości fungicydów i insektycydów w owocach jagodowych i sokach z owoców jagodowych i sokach z owoców jagodowych. PROG. PLANT PROTECTION/POST. OCHR. ROŚLIN 50 (3): 1445-1451. Łozowicka B. 2010. Studium nad pozostałościami środków ochrony roślin w płodach rolnych północno wschodniej Polski, ISSN 1730-038X. ROZPR. NAUKOWE IORPIB, zeszyt 21, Poznań. Łozowicka B., Jankowska M., Kaczyński P. 2012. Pesticide residues in Brassica vegetables and exposure assessment of consumers. FOOD CONTROL 25: 561-575. Medina-Pastor P., Rodriguez-Torreblanca A

atrazine and lead contamination. Environmental Science and Pollution Research 22: 996–1007. Grządziel J., Gałązka A., 2018. Microplot long-term experiment reveals strong soil type influence on bacteria composition and its functional diversity. Applied Soil Ecology 124: 117–123. Jankowska M., Hrynko I., Kaczyński P., Łozowicka B., 2016. Dissipation of six fungicides in greenhouse-grown tomatoes with processing and health risk. Environmental Science and Pollution Research 23: 11885–11900. Jeffries T.C., Rayu S., Nielsen U.N., Lai K., Ijaz A., Nazaries L., Singh B.K., 2018


A quarter of a century ago, the Soviet Union dissolved and the Cold War ended. Now the current political era involves a broad challenge to liberal democracy in the European Union. Central European countries such as the Czech Republic, Hungary, the Republic of Poland, and the Slovak Republic (‘the Visegrád Group’) joined the EU in 2004 with the hope that the post-Cold War era would be one of peace and stability in Europe, including (most importantly) the expansion of Europe’s democracy. A turning point came in 2014, however, when the Syrian refugee crisis hit the EU and caused a political ‘about face’. The European refugee and migrant crisis have strengthened right-wing populism among the European countries, including the Visegrád group. Obviously there are certainly similarities between the populist rhetoric of Hungary’s ruling party, Fidesz, and the Law and Justice party (known as PiS) which is governing the Republic of Poland. The two countries appear to be following the same path of becoming ‘illiberal democratic’ states. The templates of authoritarianism which both countries have adopted involve the following: the restriction of civil society and the independence of the media, control of the judiciary and the court system, together with the transformation of the constitutional framework and electoral law in order to consolidate power. This paper analyses two examples of authoritarian populist leaders: first, Viktor Orbán, the Prime Minister of Hungary of the Fidesz Party and, second, Jarosław Kaczyński, a leader of the Law and Justice Party (PiS) in Poland. A brief description of each is provided as a background for the discussion which follows.