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The aim of this paper is to fill the cognitive gap regarding the role of sanctions in the protection of a creditor’s property rights in the event of an entrepreneur insolvency. The impact of sanctions on transaction costs, including their identification and types, as well as the impact on the protection of creditor rights, has been poorly recognized in the subject literature to date. This article investigates the theory of transaction costs and property rights by providing an identification and description of formal negative sanctions, as well as their impact on counteracting the appropriation of creditors’ rights in bankruptcy proceedings. These studies are part of the discussion on the role of formalized negative sanctions, in terms of enforcing behaviours expected by the legislator.


In many countries, labor courts play a central role in the determination of firing costs by monitoring and supervising the procedures for dismissals, and, eventually, deciding severance payments mandated by the employment protection legislation (EPL). To get some insights about the impact of labor courts on effective firing costs, we explore a new database that contains information on labor courts’ intervention in firings before and after the implementation of significant EPL reforms modifying severance payments and procedures for dismissals. Our results suggest that labor court rulings on economic dismissals did not fully translate the reduction of firing costs mandated by the new EPL to effective firing costs.


Kinetics of oxidation of Lysine (Lys) and mechanisms by μ-peroxo bis[bis(ethylenediamine)succinimidato-dicobalt(III)]dinitratedihydrate; [LCo(μ-O2)CoL](NO3)2.2H2O (L = suc(en)2), hereafter the complex, was investigated at 420 nm wavelength of maximum absorption of the complex under the conditions hydrogen ions concentration = 1.8 × 10−2 mol dm−3, temperature = 24 ± 1 °C, [LCo(μ-O2)CoL2+] = 1.4 × 10−4 mol dm−3 and ionic strength = 0.5 mol dm−3. First order in [LCo(μ-O2)CoL2+] and [Lys] were obtained but inverse first order in [H+]. The proposed overall rate equation is as shown:


Rate of the reaction decreases when hydrogen ions concentration increase and exhibited converse effect with increase in concentration of ionic strength from 0.1 – 1.3 mol dm−3. Added cations and anions affected the reaction rate and the Michaelis-Menten plot passed through the origin indicating no absence of intermediate complex in the electron transfer processes. Putting all the results obtained together, the most probable reaction mechanism is in favour of outer-sphere and an appropriate rate law is established using steady state approximation.

References [1] Medved, M., Golob, L., Kotnik, A. (2009): Velenje Coal Mine (VCM) mining method and modern mechanized faces. In: Proceedings of the 3rd Balkan Mining Congress—Balkanmine, Izmir, Turkey, 1–3 October 2009; pp. 109-117. [2] Špegel, B. et al. (2009): RP-360/2009BŠ, Izdelava jamskih objektov za glavno jamsko črpališče na k.-41.5, Premogovnik Velenje, 2009. [3] Zoller+Fröhlich GmbH [online]. Z+F IMAGER® 5006i [cited 12/6/2016]. Available on: < >. [4] Slovenian Mining Act [online]. Zakon o rudarstvu ZRud-1, 2010 [cited 1

-A 2002, nr 7, poz. 97. Wyrok Trybunału Konstytucyjnego z dnia 19 lutego 2002, U 3/01, OTK-A, 2002, nr 1, poz. 3. Wyrok Trybunału Konstytucyjnego z dnia 19 maja 1998 r., U 5/97, OTK 1998, nr 4, poz. 46. Wyrok Trybunału Konstytucyjnego z dnia 20 czerwca 2005 r., K 4/04, OTK-A 2005, nr 6, poz. 64. Wyrok Trybunału Konstytucyjnego z dnia 20 listopada 2002 r., K 41/02, OTK-A 2002, nr 6, poz. 83. Wyrok Trybunału Konstytucyjnego z dnia 20 marca 2006 r., K 17/05, OTK-A 2006, nr 3, poz. 30. Wyrok Trybunału Konstytucyjnego z dnia 21 października 1998 r., K 24/98, OTK 1998, nr 6

refinements were performed in order to estimate its influence on the structural parameters. The first refinement was done only with the Mn 3+ and the second one with Mn 4+ ionic form factors. The obtained structural parameters were equal within one standard uncertainty, therefore only Mn 3+ was used in all further refinements. Parameters used in Rietveld refinement included: lattice parameters, displacement and transparency corrections, up to two size (K 00 , K 41 ) and strain coefficients (S 400 , S 220 ), one asymmetry parameter, 3 individual isotropic atomic

k 2 2 + k41 − 2k21k22 + k42 4k21k 2 2 sin2 (2k2a) = 4k21k 2 2 + ( k41 − 2k21k22 + k42 ) sin2 (2k2a) 4k21k 2 2 ⇒ T = 4k 2 1k 2 2 4k21k 2 2 + ( k41 − 2k21k22 + k42 ) sin2 (2k2a) . Maxima of T = 1 occur where sin2 (2k2a) = 0 , i.e., where 2k2a = nπ ⇒ 2a = nπ k2 are the barrier widths at which maxima occur, noting that the width of the barrier is given to be 2a . The minima occur where the sine squared term is one, so minima occur at T = 4k21k 2 2 4k21k 2 2 + ( k41 − 2k21k22 + k42 ) · 1 = 4k21k 2 2 k41 + 2k 2 1k 2 2 + k 4 2 ⇒ T = ( 2k1k2 k21 + k 2 2 )2 . Figure 9

anisyldithiolthione, Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun . 135 (1986) 1015–1021; 40. C. Deby and R. Goutier, New perspectives on the biochemistry of superoxide anion and the efficiency of superoxide dismutases, Biochem. Pharmacol . 39 (1990) 399–405; 41. H. Gao and X. Gao, Recent Progress in Blood-brain Barrier Transportation Research, in Brain Targeted Drug Delivery System – A Focus on Nanotechnology and Nanoparticulates , 1 st ed. Elsevier, Amsterdam 2019, pp. 469–481. 42. Y. H. Zhao

coinfection rates than the other HPV types. However, whether this combination exerts synergistic action with other combination types or whether this high rate is related to its own pathogenicity needs further study. Acknowledgments None. Conflict of interest : The author states no conflicts of interest. References [1] Cuzick J., Arbyn M., Sankaranarayanan R., Tsu V., Ronco G., Mayrand M.H., et al., Overview of human papillomavirus-based and other novel options for cervical cancer screening in developed and developing countries, Vaccine, 2008, 26(Suppl. 10), K29-K41. Cuzick

analysis of the USA’s Small Business Act of 1953 Group category Categories Units of recording Frequency Total A. SME access to resources Information, services and raw resources K19.1, K24.1, K41.1 3 26 Financial resources K20.1, K22.4, K23.1, K28.2, K34.3, K42.1, K50.1 7 Human resources K19.3, K19.4 2 Productivity and innovation processes K2.3, K19.2, K19.5, K21.2, K28.1 5 SME business development and diversification K10.1, K11.1, K21.1, K21.3, K22.5, K27.2, K27.3, K37.1, K49.1 9 B. SME regulations and directives Social policy – 0 34 Monetary and fiscal policy K2.4, K3