Migration is one of the main factors that shape and accelerate the development of nations or urban areas, although the dynamics and combined effects of migratory movements, national policies, and the roles of local authorities present a mixed picture in Europe. Some countries have restrictive immigration and integration policies, other nations provide easier access to their political and welfare systems, while the question of local responsibility has also acquired particular importance in recent years. The aim of this study is to explain the linkages between migration policy and development, exploring the variety of European integration policies and their effects on the national socio-economic structures. The integration policy has progressively been becoming ever more important over the last decades. The analysis presents how integration tools interact with national or regional development, emphasizing the role of different migration strategies.
Whether an individual can or cannot participate in the Czech public health insurance system depends on several characteristics, one of which is whether he/she has permanent residence status in the Czech Republic, and a second whether he/she is employed. This means that those without permanent residence status, including self-employed migrants from third countries, their dependent relatives, and the dependent relatives of third country employees in the Czech Republic, cannot participate in the public health insurance system. Some argue that such migrants should be included in the system, since commercial health insurance is disadvantageous and the contributions they would pay into the public health insurance system would increase the public health insurance agencies’ income. We estimate the value of the contributions to public health insurance that would be paid by third country self-employed and non-working immigrants, if they were insured based on data from 2011 to 2013, and compare this to the assumed costs of their medical care. To calculate the contributions for self-employed migrants we use data on the distribution of the tax base for self-employed persons from personal income tax returns. Our estimation results in an overall negative balance of 22 million CZK on the data for 2012 and 2013. In the current system this deficit would be covered by the state, which would pay contributions to the system for certain (state insured) persons amounting to 97 million CZK; overall therefore the inclusion of these immigrants would result in a positive balance of 75 million CZK.
This paper is a small review of Chebyshev’s method. The geometric interpretation as a generalization of Newton’s method is derived. Using this interpretation its global convergence is proved. Some dynamical properties are studied. As a higher order method, they are more complicated than in Newton’s method. Finally, some applications are revisited pointing out the advantages of Chebyshev’s method with respect Newton’s method.
Immigration is one of the heavily discussed subjects in modern academic and political debate. In recent decades, fiscal effects of international migration remained the centre of interest. The goal of this paper is to review and synthesise the available literature, devoted to the relationship between immigration and welfare systems, in order to present the state of the art in this area and draw conclusions for further research. Despite extensive literature, it is difficult to find an unambiguous answer to the question, whether immigrants are a burden or an asset to the state with redistributive policies. Moreover, some of the assumptions and approaches widely used in presented articles appear too simplistic or even unfounded.
A growing wage gap between immigrant and native-born workers is well documented and is a fundamental policy issue in Canada. It is quite possible that wage differences, commonly attributed to the lower quality of foreign credentials or the deficiency in the accreditation of these credentials, merely reflect lower wage offers that immigrant workers receive due to risk aversion among local firms facing an elevated degree of asymmetric information. Using the 2006 and 2011 population censuses, this paper empirically investigates the effects of wage bargaining in labor markets on the wage gap between foreign- and Canadian-educated workers. Our results imply that a significant part of the wage gap between foreign-educated and Canadian-educated immigrant (and native-born) workers is not driven by the employers’ risk aversion but by differences in human capital endowments and occupational matching quality.
In this paper we define root selections and 2p-th root selections for hyperfields: these are multiplicative subgroups whose existence is equivalent to the existence of a well behaved square root function and 2p-th root function, respectively. We proceed to investigate some basic properties of such root selections, and draw some parallels between the theory of root selections for hyperfields and the theory of orderings and orderings of higher level in hyperfields previously studied by the author.
Besides effects on economic well-being, migration of people with distant cultural backgrounds may also have large effects on people’s cultural identity. In this paper, the identity economics of is applied to migration. Accordingly, it is assumed that the utility of both the immigrants and the native population encompasses economic well-being and cultural identity. The migration effect on cultural identity depends, among others, on the distance between cultures. In a simple immigration game it is shown that immigrants may prefer to live rather in diaspora communities than to integrate into the host countries’ culture. This subgame-perfect equilibrium choice of immigrants seems the more likely the greater the cultural distance between their country of origin and the destination country is. Among the available policy instruments, restrictions on the freedom of movement and settlement of immigrants may be the most effective way to prevent the setup of large diaspora communities. For young immigrants and later generations of immigrants, integration via compulsory schooling is the most important policy. In general, cultural, religious and social institutions may support integration.
We investigate the local convergence of modified Newton method, i.e., the classical Newton method in which the derivative is periodically re-evaluated. Based on the convergence properties of Picard iteration for demicontractive mappings, we give an algorithm to estimate the local radius of convergence for considered method. Numerical experiments show that the proposed algorithm gives estimated radii which are very close to or even equal with the best ones.
The major emphasis of this work is the derivation of a posteriori error estimates for the mixed finite volume discretization of second-order elliptic equations. The estimates are established for meshes consisting of simplices on unstructured grids. We consider diffusion problems with nonhomogeneous diffusion coefficients. The error estimates are of residual types and are formulated in the energy semi-norm for a locally postprocessed approximate solutions. The estimates are fully computable and locally efficient that they can serve as indicators for adaptive refinement and for the actual control of the error. Numerical results are shown for two test examples in two space dimensions. It is found that the proposed adaptive mixed finite volume method offers a robust and accurate approach for solving second-order elliptic equations, even when highly nonhomogeneous diffusion coefficients are used in the simulations.
This paper is devoted to studying Hamiltonian oscillators in 1:1:1:1 resonance with symmetries, which include several models of perturbed Keplerian systems. Normal forms are computed in Poisson and symplectic formalisms, by mean of invariants and Lie-transforms respectively. The first procedure relies on the quadratic invariants associated to the symmetries, and is carried out using Gröner bases. In the symplectic approach, hinging on the maximally superintegrable character of the isotropic oscillator, the normal form is computed a la Delaunay, using a generalization of those variables for 4-DOF systems. Due to the symmetries of the system, isolated as well as circles of stationary points and invariant tori should be expected. These solutions manifest themselves rather differently in both approaches, due to the constraints among the invariants versus the singularities associated to the Delaunay chart.
Taking the generalized van der Waals family as a benchmark, the explicit expression of the Delaunay normalized Hamiltonian up to the second order is presented, showing that it may be extended to higher orders in a straightforward way. The search for the relative equilibria is used for comparison of their main features of both treatments. The pros and cons are given in detail for some values of the parameter and the integrals.