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Outplacement is a rare HRM tool; hence there is also a lack of research on it. In turn, banks are treated as enterprises that implemented modern management solutions faster than other companies in the countries of Central and Eastern Europe. The bank is a good entity for outplacement testing. Both Poland and Russia belong to the CEE countries. The Polish economy has been promoted to a group of developed countries. The Polish banking sector relies much more on foreign capital than in Russia, which may be important for the development of outplacement. The main aim of this paper is to reveal and explain the differences in the popularity of outplacement in Russian and Polish banks. This article uses survey data collected in Poland and Russia from over 2,000 bank employees. Mann-Whitney test, correlations and discriminant analysis were used. Employees of the Polish banking sector more often than Russian workers noted the absence of any support for dismissed workers (Poland 30%, Russia 23%). Available outplacement forms differentiated in Poland and Russia. A little more focus on counselling support was observed in Poland, and on material support in Russia. The most important factors influencing outplacement were: occupied position, size of locality, sex, work experience in banking, country.


Subject and purpose of work: Recently, research into the impact of air transport on the situation on local labor markets has been of great practical importance. These issues have become a source of interest in the study. The purpose of the article is an attempt to use taxonomic methods to analyze the spatial diversity of counties located in the catchment area (100 km) of Warsaw Chopin Airport due to the situation on local labor markets.

Materials and methods: Taxonomic methods were used as the research tool. The text also presents the methodology for identifying statistical units located in these areas, indicated by the Geostatistics Portal.

Results: The conducted process allowed to assess the impact of air transport on the economic situation on the local labor market due to the indicators selected for the study. The proposed method is a new, effective, useful and modern approach to obtaining and analyzing statistical data for the areas of influence of Polish airports. It should also be emphasized that it constitutes a certain contribution of the author to the development of research on the impact of air transport on the socio-economic development of regions.

Conclusions: The analysis allowed us to generally illustrate the spatial inequalities of the units selected for testing due to the adopted measures.


The need for classifying workers in the labour market exists in the case of information asymmetry between workers and employers. It is expected that certain mechanisms will be developed in order to overcome this information asymmetry. One of those mechanisms is signalling, whose basic idea is that highly productive workers take certain actions in order to separate themselves from the low productive workers. This paper reviews an economic role of education as a signal in the labour market. The goal of the paper is to show theoretically how education can play the role of signal in order to solve the problems caused by the asymmetric information. The importance of such analysis is reflected in the fact that the recommendations for educational policy makers in terms of investment in education are different depending on whether education serves as a mechanism for improving productivity or as a mechanism for signalling different productive capacity. It is shown that these differences arise from distinct ways of measuring social rates of return on investment in education.



Although unemployment rates are at historical lows, there is still a persistent gap between unemployment rates in black and white population. Some have proposed that part of the gap for men can be explained by the higher rate of criminal records in the black population.


This analysis aims to use negative binomial regressions and the detailed crime data available from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 survey to determine if black men with criminal records appear to be the driving force behind the gap.


The author finds that there are significant deviations in labor market outcomes depending on race and ethnicity, even when controlling for a criminal record and premarket skills.


Lowering the disproportionate rate at which black men are incarcerated will not in itself eliminate the unemployment gap between white and black men.


The purpose of this paper is to test hysteresis of the Romanian labour force participation rate, by using time series data, with quarterly frequency, covering the period 1999Q1-2013Q4. The main results reveal that the Romanian labour force participation rate is a nonlinear process and has a partial unit root (i.e. it is stationary in the first regime and non-stationary in the second one), the main breaking point being registered around year 2005. In this context, the value of using unemployment rate as an indicator for capturing joblessness in this country is debatable. Starting from 2005, the participation rate has not followed long-term changes in unemployment rate, the disturbances having permanent effects on labour force participation rate.


Despite the fact that stability of labor share in national income is a key foundation in macroeconomic models, scientists acknowledge, that in the last three decades it has been declining around the world. The Baltic countries are not an exception; they follow similar patters to large economies, thus the research aims at determining economic factors at play. With the help of error correction model and time series data covering the past twenty years, we determine factors which contribute to the decline of labor share in the Baltic countries. We find significant long-term relationships between labor share and government spending, trade openness, and emigration. Government spending exhibits the highest contribution to variance of labor share in Lithuania, which also explains a large part of Latvia’s labor share variations. We find many similarities between the analyzed countries, however some differences are also visible.


The present study aims at highlighting some of the impacts that labour market an education mutually have on each other both in the context of economies in transition (even if they used to have long historic traditions related to pioneering in instruction and education at mass and elite level) and that of a steady and consequent capitalist state undisturbed by the storms of radical political changes and periods of totally negating the values and results created by former historic eras and communities.

The main idea is that the relationship between the labour market and education is that of a mutual demand and supply based corelation, permanently influencing each other, so no political or economic authority and power should miss taking this into consideration unless they want to fail.


Based on the concept of Informational Cities, which are the highly developed prototypical cities of the 21st century, we conducted a regional comparison of four Japanese cities in terms of their “cityness” and “informativeness”. The purpose of our articles is to specify the theoretical framework for measuring the informativeness and cityness level of any desired city, to quantify the chosen indicators in order to compare the investigated cities, and finally, to conclude what is their advancement level in terms of a modern city of the knowledge society. Our methodology is based on a new approach to measure the position of a city in a national or a global scale, originating from information science and its indicators of the knowledge society. It includes such procedures as desktop research and bibliometrics, ethnographic field study, or grounded theory method. The investigated aspects under the notion of the informativeness level are the distinct labour market and mix of companies located in the city (concerned with creative, knowledge and information economy), as well as the progressive e-governance and advanced e-government. The notion of cityness level oscillates around the concept of space of flows in the city, including the flow of money, power, information, and human capital. In order to make our model practical and grounded on available evidence, we have chosen four Japanese cities to undergo the process. Tokyo, Yokohama, Osaka and Kyoto are big and economically significant Japanese metropolises. However, our results show that they differ from each other regarding many important aspects. We were able to quantify their performances and create a ranking. The limitation of our approach appears to be the strict quantification method that makes the cityness and informativeness levels of the cities dependent on other cities’ performances, and that does not precisely reflect the actual dimension of the differences between them. Hence, in the future work we will develop a more flexible and independent approach, enabling us to make more accurate statements on cities’ advancement unregarded the advancement level of the other metropolises.


The article is the next in a series aiming to formalize the MDPR-theorem using the Mizar proof assistant [3], [6], [4]. We analyze four equations from the Diophantine standpoint that are crucial in the bounded quantifier theorem, that is used in one of the approaches to solve the problem.

Based on our previous work [1], we prove that the value of a given binomial coefficient and factorial can be determined by its arguments in a Diophantine way. Then we prove that two products


where y > x are Diophantine.

The formalization follows [10], Z. Adamowicz, P. Zbierski [2] as well as M. Davis [5].

:// . 10. Russ, J. C. (2011). The Image Processing Handbook . UK: CRC Press. 11. Fornasier, M., and Rauhut, H. (2011). Compressive sensing. Handbook of Mathematical Methods in Imaging (pp. 187–228). NY: Springer.