Background: Insulin and insulin-like growth factor (IGF) activities are disturbed during critical illness. Time-course changes in the concentrations of insulin, IGF-I and IGFbinding proteins (IGFBPs) were monitored in this study and their correlation with interleukin (IL)-6 was assessed in patients subjected to total gastrectomy and specific nutritional regime.
Methods: Patients were fed post-operatively according to the following scheme: parenteral nutrition on day 1, enteral nutrition combined with parenteral form from day 2 to 7, peroral nutrition from day 8 and full oral nutrition from day 14. Blood samples were taken periodically and the levels of IL-6, insulin, IGF-I and IGFBP-1 to -4 were determined.
Results: On day 1 post-operatively, the concentration of IL- 6 reached its maximum and decreased afterwards. The concentration of insulin increased until day 3 and then started to fall. The concentration of IGF-I, already low preoperatively, continued to decrease. The concentration of IGFBP-1 peaked on day 1 post-operatively, whereas the concentration of IGFBP-3 decreased on that day. The concentration of IL-6 correlated positively with the concentration of IGFBP-1 and negatively with IGFBP-3. On day 14, the concentrations of IL-6, insulin and IGFBP-1 returned to or were close to their basal levels, whereas the concentrations of IGF-I and IGFBP-3 remained reduced.
Conclusions: 14-day post-operative recovery, which included specific nutritional support, was suitable to restore insulin concentration and re-establish IGFBP-1 regulation primarily by nutrition. Very low IGF-I level on day 14 after surgery and IGFBP-3 concentration still lower than before surgery indicated that the catabolic condition was not compensated.
Gora Miljanovic, Beba Mutavdzic, Milan Marjanovic, Zvonko Zivaljevic, Miljojko Janosevic, Sinisa Masic and Denis Pelva
The college student population is prone to irregular food intake and the excessive intake of carbohydrates and snacks. The aim of this study is to investigate the relationships among anthropometric characteristics, dietary habits and nutritional knowledge in female students attending a healthcare college.
Our investigation enrolled 100 college students at the High Health School of Professional Studies in Belgrade, 19-30 years old, who underwent anthropometric measurements and an investigation by questionnaire of their nutritional knowledge as well as recorded a 7-day food diary. The results were interpreted in relation to their location of nutritional intake.
The majority of students showed good nutritional knowledge. Of the total population, 83% were of normal weight, 11% were overweight, and 5% were underweight. The average Body Mass Index values, as well as body fat percentage, were similar regardless of the type of eating location, but all overweight and obese students were recorded in the groups that ate in the student dining facility and that prepared food and ate by themselves. Students who ate with their families ate significantly fewer fats and proteins but significantly more carbohydrates compared to students in the other two groups. Higher fat intake and snack consumption are significantly related to an increased percentage of body fat. Fruit intake is inversely related to body fat percentage.
Despite the relatively low prevalence of overweight, obesity, and underweight in the investigated population, the given results indicate that students may benefit from health promotion activities, increased knowledge and improved eating habits. This is especially important considering that they are future health professionals.
Background: C-reactive protein (CRP) has been proposed as a risk marker and risk factor of cardiovascular disease. There have been a number of clinical reports suggesting that supplementation with L-carnitine can modulate systemic inflammation and lower circulating CRP concentrations, but the results have not been consistent.
Methods: A comprehensive literature search in Medline, Scopus and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials was performed in December 2012 to identify clinical trials investigating the impact of oral L-carnitine supplementation on serum/plasma CRP concentration. A random effect method was used to calculate the combined effect size.
Results: Six studies comprising 541 cases and 546 controls met the inclusion criteria. Meta-analysis of included trials revealed a significant reduction of circulating CRP concentrations in subjects under L-carnitine intervention compared to the control treatment. The calculated combined weighted mean reduction in CRP concentrations was -0.39 mg/L [95% CI (-0.62 - -0.16)]. This effect size estimate was found to be robust and remained unaffected by the removal of each single study.
Conclusions: The overall findings of the present metaanalysis support the clinically relevant benefit of L-carnitine supplementation in lowering the circulating levels of CRP.
Miroslava Ljujić-Glišić and Niveska Božinović-Prekajski
Monitoring of Biochemical Parameters in Preterm Infants on Special Regime Feeding
Enriched human milk may stimulate gain weight in preterm infants during the neonatal period. Aim is the biochemical assessment of preterm infants, fed by mother's milk fortificated with the special domestic formula preImpamil during the first month of life. 80 preterm infants (45 male and 35 female), up to 36 weeks of gestation, BW less than 2500 g, started enteral intake in the first three days of life. Total volume intake was in range from 70 mL/kg first day, to 170-200 mL/kg after a 10th day of life. Mother's milk fortification was prepared as a 5% mixture solution of preImpamil. The dynamics of biochemical analyses started on the first day of study and was repeated once a week. We analysed levels of: total protein, albumin, prealbumin, transferin, urea, Ca ionised, P and alkaline phosphatase using standard biochemical methods. Statistical analyses were completed by ANOVA test, one-factorial analyses of variance. During monitoring the total protein level increased in the second week of life (p<0.01), as well as albumin (p<0.01). Prealbumin level increased, as well as transferin (p-NS). Initial level of ionised fraction of Ca was significantly lower (p<0.01) at the beginning of the study, compared to the rest. Serum level of P increased, as well as the level of alkaline phosphatase at the end of first and second week (p<0.01). Conclusion is that biochemical parameters, such as levels of protein and albumin, are important in the growth assessment of preterm infants on special feeding regimes.
Ivanka Miletić, Slađana Šobajić and Brižita Đorđević
Funkcionalna Hrana - Uloga U Unapređenju Zdravlja
Funkcionalna hrana je hrana koja ima povoljan uticaj na ljudsko zdravlje mimo uobičajenih nutritivnih funkcija. Biološki aktivna jedinjenja su nosioci povoljnog dejstva funkcionalne hrane. Brojni naučni dokazi govore u prilog tome da je ishrana bogata pojedinim namirnicama (kao što su to na primer voće i povrće) direktno u vezi sa smanjenim rizikom od hroničnih, nezaraznih bolesti, tako da se na tim saznanjima razvio koncept funkcionalne hrane. Otkrivaju se funkcionalne osobine tradicionalnih namirnica, ali se dizajniraju i nove funkcionalne namirnice. Uobičajene izjave koje prate tu vrstu namirnica mogu se svrstati u dve kategorije: (1) izjave o odnosu strukture i funkcije (engl. Structure and function claims) moraju da budu istinite i da ne dovode u zabludu potrošača. Te izjave ne moraju da budu odobrene od strane FDA; (2) zdravstvene izjave (engl. Health claims ili disease-specific claims) moraju da budu autorizovane od strane FDA i da poseduju značajnu naučnu potvrdu (Hillovi kriterijumi). Neophodno je rangiranje dokaza različitih tipova studija koje podržavaju zdravstvenu izjavu. Veliki broj biološki aktivnih jedinjenja su nestabilna tokom tretmana i čuvanja. Ona podležu mnogobrojnim hemijskim reakcijama, kao što su to oksidacija, hidroliza, termička degradacija i Maillardova reakcija, što rezultira smanjenjem bioiskoristljivosti. Povoljan efekat biološki aktivnih jedinjenja direktno zavisi od primenjenog tretmana.
Dušanka Zogović, Vesna Pešić, Gordana Dmitrašinović, Marijana Dajak, Bosiljka Plećaš, Bojan Batinić, Dejana Popović and Svetlana Ignjatović
Background: Sleep deprivation, malnutrition and lack of physical activity are contemporary stress-related factors present in the student population. Stress activates the HPA and often suppresses the HPG axis, but also influences cytokine synthesis and consequently regulates immune response. Since magnesium deficiency facilitates negative pathophysiological consequences, a reasonable question imposes, wheth er Mg supplementation might correct the adrenal/go - n adal hormone balance and immuno-endocrine function.
Methods: Fifteen male students were given 2 × 250 mg Mg for four weeks. Serum levels of FSH, LH, testosterone (T), ACTH and cortisol (C) were measured before and after supplementation and the T/C ratio was calculated. Furthermore, IL-6, red blood cells (RBC), hemoglobin (Hb), white blood cells (WBC) and the WBC differential were measured.
Results: Despite no change in the serum level of ACTH, a statistically significant (p<0.05) decrease in the serum cortisol level appeared, accompanied with an IL-6 level reduction (p<0.05) after Mg supplementation. Analysis of the pituitarygonadal axis hormones showed an increasing trend of the FSH level (p=0.087), and a significant increase (p<0.05) in the T/C ratio. An RBC count increase (p<0.001) was found, along with a decrease in the percentage of neutrophils (p< 0.05), and a trend toward a lymphocyte percentage increase.
Conclusions: The results suggest that chronic oral magnesium supplementation in male students improves the balance of pituitary-gonadal and pituitary-adrenal hormones and is involved in the regulation of the basal IL-6 level.
Nenad Đorđević, Zoran Popović, Dejan Beuković and Miloš Beuković
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Andrija Špoljar, Damir Barčić, Tomislava Peremin Volf, Stjepan Husnjak and Martinović Ivica
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Jelena Golijan, Aleksandar Popović and Ljubiša Živanović
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Djordje Stevanovic, Mina Poskurica, Jovan Jovanovic, Miodrag Sreckovic, Vladimir Zdravkovic, Mileta Poskurica, Vladimir Miloradovic and Nela Djonovic
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