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Jeremy Besson, Adomas Birstunas, Antanas Mitasiunas and Arunas Stockus
Transfer of information-based services to an electronic environment is the accomplished fact. Some of such services lead to creation of electronic documents that are signed by qualified e-signature and have legal value equal to hand-signed documents. In fact, the documents are created not for private use but for an exchange with the others. The main challenge of the electronic document usage is their interoperability. An electronic document is a dual technical and legal artefact that depends on a national legislation system and “lives” within a national platform of electronic documents. Therefore, an electronic document is not a subject of technical standardization only. The paper introduces a new concept for an electronic document cross-border interoperability solution based on creation of original copies for each national electronic document platform of the document signatories.
1. Directive 2008/57/EC of the European Parliament on the interoperability of the rail system within Community
2. Directive 2004/49/WE of the European Parliament on safety on the Community's railways
3. Commission Decision 2010/713/EU on modules for the procedures for assessment of conformity, suitability for use and EC verification to be used in the technical specifications for interoperability
4. Commission Recommendation 2014/897/EU on matters related to the placing in service and use of structural subsystems and vehicles
During the time he held the chair of United States Secretary of Defense, Donald Rumsfeld argued that it had become fashionable for military strategists to develop and launch increasingly sophisticated concepts, without technical and financial support to implement them. Based on this statement, it was noticed that the same approach was applied by some Romanian military strategists, who have rushed to adopt certain concepts from our counterparts that belong to western countries and implement them in our national legislation without taking into account all the necessary resources (human, financial, technical etc.) for their application. In this respect, one example could be the interoperability and its derivatives, the main focus of the present paper.
the Technology (ICAST), Accra, Ghana, pp. 410-417.
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5. BRUSILOVSKY, P., SOSNOVSKY, S., YUDELSON, M. 2005. Ontology-based Framework for User Model Interoperability in Distributed
Robert Janczewski, Grzegorz Pilarski and Maciej Marczyk
During Warsaw NATO summit cyberspace has officially become a new domain of operations in which NATO must defend itself as effectively as it does in the air, on land, and at sea. According to this declaration, NATO members must achieve abilities to conduct cyber operations. This declaration shows distinctly that partners in NATO need to have defensive and offensive capabilities to interoperate with allies during cyber activities. However, the proper functioning of armed forces in a multi and international environment, their cross-sectoral cooperation in time of peace, war, and a crisis situation depends on terminology and common language. Unfortunately, different NATO countries have their own set of terms and definitions. Sometimes cyber terminology is strongly distant. The lack of a unified conceptual apparatus for cyber activities poses a serious barrier to interoperate in cyberspace. The article presents a theoretical basis of cyber terminology based on research carried out by the authors. The paper is the added value since it presents and clarifies complex issues of cybersecurity terminology. Moreover, it also presents definitions of key terms and assures a strong theoretical basis and provides an incentive for further research on the referents of cyber terms.