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BIBLIOGRAPHY - Amerasinghe, F., C. (2005). Principles of the Institutional Law of International Organizations. 2nd ed. UK: Cambridge University Press. - Armstrong, D., Lloyd, L. & Redmond, J. International Organisation in World Politics . 3d ed. UK: Palgrave Macmillan. - Cogan, K., J., Hurd, I. & Johnstone, I., ed. (2016). The Oxford Handbook of International Organizations . UK: Oxford University Press. - Conforti, B. & Focarelli, C. (2016). The Law and Practice of the United Nations . 5th ed. The Netherlands: Brill. - Crawford, R., J. (2012). Brownlie

Abstract

The article scrutinizes the referendum as an instrument to join international organizations. It analyzes the interaction of the participants for achieving unanimity and consensus, not differences or attempts to impose a certain opinion. A conclusion is drawn that through direct democracy the citizens take responsibility for the future development of the state.

Columbia University, New York, 2016, pp.53-66. • Information and Communication Needs Assessment, UNHCR, Skopje, April 2016. • Latifi, V., “The international organizations role in handling the refugee crisis along the Balkan human corridor” in Philips, David (ed.), Balkan Human Corridor, Institute for the Study of Human Rights at Columbia University, New York, 2016, pp.158-170. • Refugee and Migrant Crisis in Europe, Regional Humanitarian Situation Report, No. 8, UNICEF, Skopje, February, 16th, 2016. • Regional Humanitarian Situation Report, No. 8, UNICEF, 2016. • RRMMP

Abstract

The paper focuses on the notion of disability in the documents of selected international organisations. The social model approach to disability has been implemented since the second half of the 20th century and consequently such terms as ‘invalid’, ‘madman’, ‘dumb’, ‘cripple’, ‘paralytic’, ‘the lame’ or ‘the blind’ were removed from the literature, legal acts, or documents of international organisations. Notions like ‘disability’, ‘disabled person’, or ‘a person with disability’ are considered ‘politically correct’ now. It is worth highlighting however that great emphasis is put to replace the term ‘a disabled person’ with the term ‘a person with a disability or disabilities” as the latter notion does not refer to the person’s characteristics with one adjective only, hence it does not stigmatize him/her either. The trend is reflected in the terminology used in the documents and acts introduced at the international level. Nevertheless, there are still a lot of difficulties with translation into other languages, which is also the Polish case.

Abstract

Corrigenda issued by international organizations provide a most relevant source for the analysis of translation errors and what they reveal about institutional translation quality control and correction processes. This study examines corrigenda published in three settings (the European Union institutions involved in law-making, the United Nations and the World Trade Organization) in three years over a decade: 2005, 2010 and 2015. It reviews the procedures used to introduce translation corrections in these institutions before presenting the results of the quantitative and qualitative analysis of translation-triggered corrigenda in two target languages, French and Spanish, per setting, year, genre, error type and severity. A distinction is made between content reformulation corrections and minor formal corrections for the comparison of diachronic changes and semantic impact levels of corrected errors between the institutions considered. The findings confirm that minor formal errors may have meaning-distorting effects that are as serious as content reformulation errors; when this is not the case, they rarely trigger single-correction corrigenda. The UN recourse to “reissues for technical reasons” for translation corrections and the growing number of corrigenda to EU legal acts and their implications for translation quality assurance and legal certainty are further contextualized and discussed drawing on both corpus analysis and consultations with institutional informants.

Bibliography - Alexandroff, Alan S. (March 2010). Challenges in Global Governance: Opportunities for G-x Leadership, Retrieved on 2 April, 2019 from http://www.stanleyfoundation.org/publications/pab/AlexandroffPAB310.pdf - Archer, C, III edition (2001). International Organizations, New York: Routledge - Berridge G.R. III edition ( 2005). Diplomacy: Theory and Practice. UK Palgrave Macmillan. - Buchanan, Allen and Robert O. Keohane (2006).The Legitimacy of Global Governance Institutions. Ethics and International Affairs 20 (4) (pgs. 405-437). - Cox, R, (1987

: https://www.mpil.de/files/pdf4/mpunyb_06_Moeldner_161.pdf (last accessed 24 July 2019) MURRAY, Odette. Piercing the Corporate Veil: The Responsibility of Member states of an International Organisation. International Organizations Law Review , 2011, vol. 8, issue 2, pp. 291–347 NATO. International Military Staff [online]. 15 June 2017, available at: https://www.nato.int/cps/en/natohq/topics_64557.htm (last accessed on 24 July 2019) NATO. North Atlantic Council [online]. 10 October 2017, available at: https://www.nato.int/cps/ic/natohq/topics_49763.htm (last

CHALLENGES FOR THE UN AND OTHER ORGANISATIONS: THE ECONOMIC DIMENSION 121 CHALLENGES FOR THE UN AND OTHER ORGANISATIONS: THE ECONOMIC DIMENSION Dr. Harilla GOGA Minister Counselor, Permanent Mission of Albania to UN Office in Geneva and other International Organizations harilla.goga@mfa.gov.al Prof. Assoc. Stefan QIRICI Deputy Rector University College “Luarasi” Tirana, Albania s.qirici@seeu.edu.mk DOI: 10.1515/seeur-2017-0021 Abstract The article aims to put on the table the ongoing works of the United Nations Organization (its

Abstract

By carrying out the national defence, national interests are protected by the active involvement of state institutions with responsibilities in the field, but not only these, being committed the available resources of the state in order to ensure the sovereignty, the independence, the unity, the territorial integrity and the constitutional democracy, under the conditions of combating any type of aggression. This is achieved through the full exercise of citizens' rights and freedoms, through conscious assumption of responsibilities, and by the affirming a state as an active member of the community and international organisations. The national defence is very well grounded, being regulated at national level by rules approved by the President of the country, by the Government, having the legal opinion of the Supreme Defence Council of the Country.One of the most important resources needed to achieve the national defence is the human resource that needs to be continuously prepared and trained through various forms of preparation. A high level human resource training determines a high level of a state national defence.

international organizations. 2nd edition. Publisher Saraiva, São Paulo, 2007. DALLAGNOL, Deltan Martinazzo.Financing of terrorism. In: DE CARLI, Carla Verrissimo, Money Laundering: prevention and penal control, Legal Verb, Porto Alegre, 2011. DENNING, E.D. Cyberterrorism - Testimony before the Special Oversight, Panel on Terrorism Committee on Armed Services, U.S. House of Representatives, 2000. Available at: http://www.cs.georgetown.edu/~denning/infosec/cyberterror.html . Accessed on 22.11.2018. FEDERAL BUREAU OF INVESTIGATION. Available at: http://www.fbi.gov , Access on