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Background/Aim: To determine the prevalence of single-rooted mandibular second molars in a Greek population and examine their internal morphology with the aid of intraoral periapical radiography.

Material and Methods: Clinical records of 531 root-canal treated permanent single-rooted mandibular second molars were collected from the Postgraduate Clinic of the Department of Endodontology, Dental School, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece and from private dental clinics in the same city. The clinical records, along with the radiographic examination, were evaluated to determine the overall frequency of single-rooted mandibular second molars together with the number of root canals and their course. The root canals were categorized using Vertucci’s classification with the addition of 3 further types where appropriate.

Results: Out of 531 mandibular second molars; 102 (19.2%) presented a single root; 427 (80.4%) presented two roots; 2 (0.4%) presented three roots. In a total of 102 single-rooted mandibular second molars 31 (30.3%) presented with Type I, 18 (17.6%) with Type II, 14 (13.7%) with Type IV, 7 (7%) with 3 additional root canal types and 32 (31.4%) with a C-shaped root canal system.

Conclusions: One out five mandibular second molars was single-rooted in a Greek population. The internal morphology of these teeth can be very complex with regard to the numbers and courses of root canals.


Based on external and internal morphological characters, Apithesis obesa (of the monotypical genus Apithesis ) is redescribed and transferred from the tribe Ulomini to the tribe Opatrini where it is incorporated in Clitobius . Preliminary review of the taxonomy and distribution of Clitobius is performed. The following names are placed in synonymy: Clitobius = Apithesis , syn. nov. = Apteroclitobius , syn. nov.; Clitobius ovatus () = Halonomus salinicola , syn. nov.; Clitobius oblongiusculus () = Clitobius ovatus borkouensis , syn. nov.; Clitobius obesus (), comb. nov. = Clitobius pseudalatus , syn. nov. Clitobius omanicus sp. nov. is described from Oman. A key to the species of Clitobius is presented. Distributional patterns within the genus are analysed and discussed.


Background/Aim: To analyze the internal morphology of mandibular incisors with two root canals using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). Material and Methods: 289 (143 central and 146 lateral) extracted intact mandibular incisors were radiographed for detection of a second root canal. The teeth presenting a second root canal were imaged with CBCT and evaluated regarding: root canal type, the distance of the cementoenamel junction (CEJ) to the bifurcation of the canals and the distance of the canal fusion to the apical foramen (in teeth in which canals rejoined). Results: Out of 143 central and 146 lateral mandibular incisors, 41 (28.7%) and 44 (30.1%) teeth respectively showed a second root canal. Types II, III, V and an additional type to Vertucci’s classification were identified. Type III was the most prevalent and presented in 30 (73.2%) central and 34 (77.3%) lateral mandibular incisors with two root canals. The mean values of the distance of the CEJ to the canal bifurcation were 4.2 mm and 4.0 mm for central and lateral mandibular incisors respectively. The mean values of the distance of the canal fusion to the apical foramen 5.5 mm and 5.1 mm for central and lateral mandibular incisors respectively. Conclusions: Mandibular incisors with two root canals mainly present with Vertucci’s Type 3 canal configuration. The canal bifurcation was identified mostly at the coronal and middle thirds of the root, while the canal fusion occurred in the middle third of the root.

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