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Most ligature cases feature everyday, innately-tied Overhand Knots, Half Hitches and Half Knots. These knots are the result of habitual behaviour and individual tiers demonstrate consistency, except when certain contextual factors come into play. This survey focussed on comparing the chiralities of basic knots to those of Figure Eight Knots, which occur in case evidence and require similar tying actions. It is important to note that real-world Figure Eights are oriented relative to their working ends and are therefore chiral, whereas topological Figure Eights have no ends and are amphichiral. Data summarizing the tying habits of 184 survey respondents were collected and analysed. The majority of volunteers surveyed tied common Overhand Knots and Figure Eights of equal chirality, consistently or nearly consistently, irrespective of any general learning effect. A minority tied knots of opposite chirality. The knots tied by the remaining respondents varied, and the data suggested a potentially complex pattern which may be related to previous findings. Similar but less pronounced patterns were exhibited in the Half Hitch and Half Knot data. This information could be useful when analysing case evidence and making links to suspect samples, provided cautious attention is paid to context and knot function.
This research consists of two experimental studies investigating the influence of moral character on endorser perception, and the influence of perceiver characteristics on tarnished endorser perception and brand evaluations. Perceiver characteristics are discussed from the perspectives of dispositional tendency, innate moral intuitions and self-location. The first study compared the influences of moral character and warmth on endorser perception. The second study examined the impact of perceiver characteristics on tarnished endorsers and brand evaluations. The findings reveal that moral character is more influential than warmth on endorser evaluations. Tarnished endorsers with immoral character exert more negative influence than tarnished endorsers with coldness character on brand evaluations. Innate moral intuitions and self-location moderate brand evaluations. High-morality consumers and heart-locators are more vulnerable than low-morality and brain-locators to the brands endorsed by tarnished endorsers, respectively.
The Affiliative Imprinting Phenomenon in the Modern Study of Animal Cognition
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Chiandetti, C., & Vallortigara, G. (2008). Is there an innate geometric module? Effects of experience with angular geometric cues on spatial re