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Abstract

This Paper addresses the right to informed consent regarding euthanasia using international conventions and, to a lesser extent, national laws and policies. Spe­cifically, The United States, Belgium and the Netherlands will be examined. The Paper specifically discusses legal capacity, the right to consent and the right to information. Three stories are used to argue the importance of implementing effective safeguards for these rights and notes that these safeguards are necessary regardless of whether or not euthanasia is legalized in a state. This Paper also argues that patients should not be offered euthanasia for mental illnesses. The ethical debate surrounding whether euthanasia should be permitted generally is not discussed.

therapy trial, informed consent required piecing together a thorough understanding of the potential risks to themselves and benefits to the wider haemophilia community At that meeting I expressed concern about the small recruitment pool — participants needed to be adults, have severe haemophilia B, have the ‘right’ mutation, no ongoing viral hepatitis or HIV infection and of course a willingness and availability to take part. The disaster of HIV and hepatitis C transmission through contaminated blood products, which themselves were once heralded as ground-breaking new

Ethical issues in clinical trials in children

Clinical trials (CTs) in children involve much methodological specificity that are reflected in the ethical issues related to them, as well as in the evaluation of ethical acceptability of the given protocol by an ethics committee. A child in comparison to an adult exhibits numerous patho/physiological differences that are in addition characterized by the quick changes during the child's growth and development. Nowadays, there are no doubts about the necessity of conducting specific CTs in children that are not possible to perform in adults. Despite children are not able to give legally valid informed consent and it is necessary to obtain consent from the child's parents, or from the legal representative, it is also necessary, before including the child into the trial, to obtain his/her appropriate agreement (assent) with participation. It is a must always to fully respect the requirements of minimization of pain, discomfort, fear, and separation from the parents especially from the mother. Special ethical issues are connected with CTs conducted in neonatal period. On the part of the professional public, producers of medicinal drugs, as well as from the positions of the European institutions, considerable attention is being paid to the area of CTs in children. It is reflected in numerous scientific researches, and professional and legislative activities. In the Slovak Republic, the area of biomedical research, including CTs, in children and minors is covered by up-to-date, comprehensive legislation. It ensures not only the maximal protection of the child or minor taking part in biomedical research or CT, but it also provides sufficient level of legal certainty to the sponsors and investigators of biomedical research projects/CTs.

References Anderman, C., A. Cheadle, S. Curry, P. Diehr, L. Shultz, and E. Wagner. 1995. “Selection Bias Related to Parental Consent in School-Based Survey Research.” Evaluation Review 19: 663-674. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0193841X9501900604. Bates, N.A. 2005. “Development and Testing of Informed Consent Questions to Link Survey Data with Administrative Records.” In Proceedings of the American Statistical Association, May 12-15, 2005. 3786-3793, Miami Beach, FL. Available at: http:// www.amstat.org/committees/ethics/linksdir/Jsm2005Bates.pdf (accessed May

Abstract

Introduction. Direct coercion is a part of medical intervention in which the patient’s autonomy as a basic human right is limited. In clinical practice, there are situations in which the use of coercion is indeed necessary to protect the patient and his/her environment against the effects of growing aggression. A very important element of action in such cases is to ensure the safety of both the patient through professional care, and of the personel executing the coercive measure.

Aim. The aim of this thesis is to analyze the legal scope and applicability of coercive measures in nursing practice.

Method. The exegesis of a legal text was used, which allows to present the legal conditions and rules of conduct in case of using direct coercion in psychiatric institutions and non-psychiatric units.

Conclusions. Regardless of the type of institution, the decision to use direct coercion should be carefully considered in terms of both the patient’s good and safety. This is a unique operation. It should be done in accordance with legal guidelines in this regard, what significantly determines the employees’ safety.

Complex Survey Data with Applications.” Journal of the American Statistical Association 111(516): 1715–1725. Doi: http://dx.doi.org/01621459.2015.1112803 . Cox, D.R. and D. Oakes. 1984. Analysis of Survival Data . CRC Press. da Silva, M.E.M., C.M. Coeli, M. Ventura, M. Palacios, M.M.F. Magnanini, T.M.C.R. Camargo and K.R. Camargo. 2012. “Informed Consent for Record Linkage: A Systematic Review.” Journal of Medical Ethics 38(10): 639 – 642. Doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/medethics-2011-100208 . D’Orazio, M., M. Di Zio and M. Scanu. 2006a. “Statistical Matching for

of the informed consent for oncological treatments. Rep Pract Oncol Radiother 2005; 10: 1-10. 22. Byrne DJ, Napier A, Cuschieri A. How informed is signed consent? Br Med J (Clin Res Ed) 1988; 296: 839-40. 23. Malicki J. The importance of accurate treatment planning, delivery, and dose verification. Rep Pract Oncol Radiother 2012; 17: 63-5. 24. Richetti A, Fogliatta A, Clivo A, Nicolin G, Pesce G, et al. Neo-adjuvant chemo-radiation of rectal cancer with volumetric modulated arc therapy: summary of technical and dosimetric features and early clinical

intravenously or epidurally, for the maintenance of analgesia with marked reduction in morphine, buprenorphine and sufentanil associated PONV. [ 13 , 14 , 15 , 16 ] But no similar studies on epidural fentanyl have been found till date. Hence, this study was formulated to assess the effectiveness of epidural naloxone in attenuating PONV in patients receiving epidural fentanyl for pain relief after lower limb orthopaedic procedures. MATERIALS AND METHODS After procuring Institutional Ethics Committee approval and written informed consent, 46 patients, between 18–80 years, of

, throughout the manuscript. For simplicity, we will refer to one study hypothesis in the following text, despite the fact that larger studies may intend to test several independent, connected or hierarchical hypotheses. Scientific papers are usually structured in four sections, that is, introduction, material and methods, results and discussion. Other common parts of manuscripts are abstracts, the reference list and acknowledgements. Declarations of ethical approval by a registered committee, of informed consent and of interests of the authors are needed when investigating

variables. Pearson's correlation coefficient was used to evaluate the associations between SMI and CC. A t-test was applied for correlation coefficients. P-values of less than 0.05 were considered to indicate statistical significance. The data obtained were analyzed using SPSS 21.0 (SPSS, Chicago, IL). Informed consent Informed consent has been obtained from all individuals included in this study. Ethical approval The research related to human use has complied with all relevant national regulations, institutional policies, and in accordance with the tenets of the Helsinki