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Original Article .The Optimal Allocation of Investment between Antivirals and Vaccines for Influenza Pandemic Preparedness Planning

References 1 JC, Cooley PC, Burke DS. Strategies for mitigating an influenza pandemic. Nature 2006;442: 448-452. 2 WHO. Pandemic influenza vaccines: current status. (Accessed at http://www.who.int/csr/disease/swineflu/notes/pandemic_influenza_vaccines_20090924/en/index.html. 3 Moghadas SM, Pizzi NJ, Wu JH, Yan P. Managing public health crises: the role of models in pandemic preparedness. Influenza Other Respi Viruses 2009;3:75-79. 4 Longini IM, Halloran ME, Nizam A, Yang Y. Containing pandemic

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Reactogenicity and safety of AS03B-adjuvanted H5N1 influenza vaccine in children: an open-label, one-way, crossover trial

contribute to the understanding of influenza pandemic vaccines was good (of the 231 placebo recipients in Year 1, 155 [60%] enrolled in Year 2). Of note, the randomized-controlled part of this trial (Year 1) was the basis for the regulatory approval of the pediatric dose (1.9 μg HA with AS03 B ) in the US and Canada for use according to official recommendations. Conclusions In summary, this open-label, one-way crossover extension phase (Year 2) included 155 children who were aged from 6 months to <18 years at study entry in the randomized blinded phase (Year 1

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Some factors affecting the decision on non-mandatory vaccination in an influenza pandemic: comparison of pandemic (H1N1) and seasonal influenza vaccination

://www.ivz.si/javne_datoteke/datoteke/2119-Analizaizvajanja_IP_2008.pdf Maurer J, Uscher-Pines L, Harris KM. Perceived seriousness of seasonal and A (H1N1) influenzas, attitudes toward vaccination, and vaccine uptake among U. S. adults: does the source of information matter? Prev Med 2010; 51:185-7. Poland GA. The 2009-2010 influenza pandemic: effects on pandemic and seasonal vaccine uptake and lessons learned for seasonal vaccination campaigns. Vaccine 2010; 28 (Suppl 4): D3-13. Schwarzinger M, Flicoteaux R, Cortarenoda S

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A single dose vaccination with an elastase-dependent H1N1 live attenuated swine influenza virus protects pigs from challenge with 2009 pandemic H1N1 virus

Abstract

The 2009 outbreak of H1N1 influenza A viruses in humans underscored the importance of pigs in influenza A virus evolution and the emergence of novel viruses with pandemic potential. In addition, influenza A virus infections continued to cause production losses in the agricultural industry resulting in a significant drop of profit. The primary method to control influenza A virus infections in pigs is through vaccination. Previously we demonstrated that two doses of an elastase-dependent live attenuated swine influenza virus administered by either the intratracheal or intranasal route can provide a high degree of protection in pigs against challenge with both homologous and different heterologous swine influenza viruses. Here we report the protection efficacy of a single dose elastase-dependent live attenuated swine influenza virus administered by the intranasal route against challenge with homologous subtypic H1N1 2009 pandemic swine-like influenza virus. Protection was observed in the absence of neutralizing antibodies specific for H1N1 2009 in sera.

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Epidemiological Surveillance of Influenza Virus Matrix Gene in Pigs, in Lagos, Nigeria, 2015-2016

Abstract

The co-infection of different influenza A virus enable viral gene re-assortments especially in pigs that serve as mixing vessel with the possibility of emergence of novel subtypes. Such re-assortants pose serious public health threat, as epitomised by the emergence of pandemic influenza in 2009. In Nigeria, there is mixture of animal species and highly populated densities that can increase the risk of influenza virus endemicity, genetic reshuffling and emergence of future pandemic influenza viruses. Thus, this study was aimed at determining influenza virus disease burden in pigs. This study was a cross sectional molecular surveillance of influenza virus. A total of 194 pig nasal samples from reported cases and randomly sampled were collected from pig farms in Ojo and Ikorodu in Lagos State between October, 2015 and April, 2016. The samples were investigated for the presence of influenza virus matrix gene by Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction and detected by gel electrophoresis. P-values were calculated using Chi-square and Fisher’s exact tests. The result showed that 25 (12.9%) samples were positive for influenza A virus, out of which, 20 (80%) were samples from Ojo while 5 (20%) were samples from Ikorodu. Epidemiological parameters for the sampled locations, methods either as reported case or randomised, and sex compared were significant at 95% confidence interval. This study determined influenza viral burden in pigs with a molecular prevalence of 12.9% to influenza A. It further confirmed the sub-clinical and clinical circulation of Influenza A virus in pigs in Ojo and Ikorodu in Lagos. Therefore, the detection of influenza A virus in commercial pigs in Nigeria accentuates the importance of continuous surveillance and monitoring of the virus in order to prevent the advent of virulent strains that may spread to Pig-handlers and the community at large.

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Emergence of the pandemic H1N1 2009 influenza A virus in swine herds in Poland

Abstract

The outbreaks of pandemic H1N1 influenza A virus (pdm-like H1N1 2009), detected for the first time in farrow-to-finish farms in Poland, were described. The nasal swabs and lung tissue collected from diseased/dead animals were tested using molecular techniques (RRT-PCR, MRT-PCR, RT-PCR, SSG-PCR, sequencing) and virus isolation. The amplification of the genetic material extracted from the tested samples confirmed the presence of the M1 gene sequence of type A influenza virus. Using MRT-PCRs no products characteristic for HA and NA of any swine influenza virus subtypes were obtained. Using SSGPCR, products specific for pandemic HA and NA gene fragments were detected. Six new pdm-like H1N1 2009 strains were isolated and characterised. Phylogenetic analysis of the HA and NA genes revealed that they belong to one lineage with the pandemic strain A/California/04/2009 and other human strains, including human strains isolated in Poland in 2011.

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The Role of Health Systems in Emergency Response Planning

-100 11. Bonita R, Beaglehole R, Kjellstrom T. Basic epidemiology. 2nd edition. World Health Organization: Switzerland 2006. 12. Patterson KD, Pyle GF. The geography and mortality of the 1918 influenza pandemic. Bull Hist Med 1991; 65 (1): 4-21. 13. Taubenberger KJ, Morens MD. 1918 Influenza: the Mother of All Pandemics. Emerg Infect Dis 2006; 12(1): 15-22 14. Johnson NP, Mueller J. Updating the accounts: global mortality of the 1918-1920 “Spanish” influenza pandemic. Bull Hist Med 2002; 76 (1): 105-15. 15

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Effectiveness of the Information Leaflet Personal Measures During Pandemic Flu A(H1N1) Issued by the Ministry of Health of the Slovak Republic During the 2009/2010 Flu Pandemic

. Prof. Zdeněk Matějček o dyslexii. In Učitelské noviny No. 37/2002. Praha: Gnosis, 2002. 12. Recommendations and Implementation During Emerging Infectious Diseases: A Case Study of the 2009 H1N1 Influenza Pandemic. In Disaster Med Public Health. Prep. 2014 Apr 15:1-12. [Epub ahead of print]. PMID: 24735822 13. Mikas J, Lukacova D, Svihrova V, Hudeckova H. 2012. Analýza zaočkovanosti proti sezónnej a pandemickej chrípke na Slovensku. In Pediatria, No. 2, Year 7. Bratislava: SAMEDI, 2012. ISSN 1336-863X. 14. O`Flanagan D

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Brief communication (Original). Effectiveness of influenza control using nonpharmaceutical interventions at primary schools in Nakhon Phanom Province, Northeast Thailand

presentation/proceeding) Proceeding in Agadir International Conference, 12-14 November 2009. 7. Prateepko T, Chaongsuvivatwong V. Patterns of perception toward influenza pandemics among the front-line responsibility health personnel in southern Thailand: a methodology approach. BMC Public Health. 2009; 9:161. 8. Falsey AR, Criddle MM, Kolassa JE, McCann RM, Brower CA, Hall WJ. Evaluation of a hand-washing intervention to reduce respiratory illness rates in senior day-care centers. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 1999; 20

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Original article. Electron micrographs of human and avian influenza viruses with high and low pathogenicity

Epidemiol Rec. 77;77-80. 19. Neumann G, Kawaoka Y. Host range restriction and pathogenicity in the context of influenza pandemic. Emerg Infect Dis. 2006; 12:881-6. 20. Hazelton PR, Gelderblom HR. Electron microscopy for rapid diagnosis of infectious agents in emergent situation. Emerg Infect Dis. 2003; 9:294-303. 21. Thakerngpol K, Stitnimankarn T. The role of electron microscopy in viral diagnosis. Siriraj Hosp Gaz. 2003; 55:459-62. 22. Rowden G, Lewis MG. Experience with a three-hour electron microscopy

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