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4 Longini IM, Halloran ME, Nizam A, Yang Y. Containing pandemic
Patricia Izurieta, Pope Kosalaraksa, Louise Frenette, Mamadou Dramé, Bruce L. Innis, David W Vaughn and Anne Schuind
contribute to the understanding of influenzapandemic vaccines was good (of the 231 placebo recipients in Year 1, 155 [60%] enrolled in Year 2). Of note, the randomized-controlled part of this trial (Year 1) was the basis for the regulatory approval of the pediatric dose (1.9 μg HA with AS03 B ) in the US and Canada for use according to official recommendations.
In summary, this open-label, one-way crossover extension phase (Year 2) included 155 children who were aged from 6 months to <18 years at study entry in the randomized blinded phase (Year 1
Maurer J, Uscher-Pines L, Harris KM. Perceived seriousness of seasonal and A (H1N1) influenzas, attitudes toward vaccination, and vaccine uptake among U. S. adults: does the source of information matter? Prev Med 2010; 51:185-7.
Poland GA. The 2009-2010 influenzapandemic: effects on pandemic and seasonal vaccine uptake and lessons learned for seasonal vaccination campaigns. Vaccine 2010; 28 (Suppl 4): D3-13.
Schwarzinger M, Flicoteaux R, Cortarenoda S
Aleksandar Mašić, Niziti Woldeab, Carissa Embury-Hyatt, Yan Zhou and Shawn Babiuk
The 2009 outbreak of H1N1 influenza A viruses in humans underscored the importance of pigs in influenza A virus evolution and the emergence of novel viruses with pandemic potential. In addition, influenza A virus infections continued to cause production losses in the agricultural industry resulting in a significant drop of profit. The primary method to control influenza A virus infections in pigs is through vaccination. Previously we demonstrated that two doses of an elastase-dependent live attenuated swine influenza virus administered by either the intratracheal or intranasal route can provide a high degree of protection in pigs against challenge with both homologous and different heterologous swine influenza viruses. Here we report the protection efficacy of a single dose elastase-dependent live attenuated swine influenza virus administered by the intranasal route against challenge with homologous subtypic H1N1 2009 pandemic swine-like influenza virus. Protection was observed in the absence of neutralizing antibodies specific for H1N1 2009 in sera.
Abdul-Azeez A. Anjorin, Olumuyiwa B. Salu, Akeeb O.B. Oyefolu, Bamidele O. Oke, James B. Ayorinde, Mercy R. Orenolu, Abdullah A. Maryam, Anyanwu A. Roosevelt, Oyibo A. Wellington and Omilabu A. Sunday
The co-infection of different influenza A virus enable viral gene re-assortments especially in pigs that serve as mixing vessel with the possibility of emergence of novel subtypes. Such re-assortants pose serious public health threat, as epitomised by the emergence of pandemic influenza in 2009. In Nigeria, there is mixture of animal species and highly populated densities that can increase the risk of influenza virus endemicity, genetic reshuffling and emergence of future pandemic influenza viruses. Thus, this study was aimed at determining influenza virus disease burden in pigs. This study was a cross sectional molecular surveillance of influenza virus. A total of 194 pig nasal samples from reported cases and randomly sampled were collected from pig farms in Ojo and Ikorodu in Lagos State between October, 2015 and April, 2016. The samples were investigated for the presence of influenza virus matrix gene by Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction and detected by gel electrophoresis. P-values were calculated using Chi-square and Fisher’s exact tests. The result showed that 25 (12.9%) samples were positive for influenza A virus, out of which, 20 (80%) were samples from Ojo while 5 (20%) were samples from Ikorodu. Epidemiological parameters for the sampled locations, methods either as reported case or randomised, and sex compared were significant at 95% confidence interval. This study determined influenza viral burden in pigs with a molecular prevalence of 12.9% to influenza A. It further confirmed the sub-clinical and clinical circulation of Influenza A virus in pigs in Ojo and Ikorodu in Lagos. Therefore, the detection of influenza A virus in commercial pigs in Nigeria accentuates the importance of continuous surveillance and monitoring of the virus in order to prevent the advent of virulent strains that may spread to Pig-handlers and the community at large.
Iwona Markowska-Daniel, Kinga Urbaniak, Marian Porowski, Paweł Karbowiak, Andrzej Kowalczyk, Edyta Kozak and Zygmunt Pejsak
The outbreaks of pandemic H1N1 influenza A virus (pdm-like H1N1 2009), detected for the first time in farrow-to-finish farms in Poland, were described. The nasal swabs and lung tissue collected from diseased/dead animals were tested using molecular techniques (RRT-PCR, MRT-PCR, RT-PCR, SSG-PCR, sequencing) and virus isolation. The amplification of the genetic material extracted from the tested samples confirmed the presence of the M1 gene sequence of type A influenza virus. Using MRT-PCRs no products characteristic for HA and NA of any swine influenza virus subtypes were obtained. Using SSGPCR, products specific for pandemic HA and NA gene fragments were detected. Six new pdm-like H1N1 2009 strains were isolated and characterised. Phylogenetic analysis of the HA and NA genes revealed that they belong to one lineage with the pandemic strain A/California/04/2009 and other human strains, including human strains isolated in Poland in 2011.
Vladimir Dobricanin, Nebojsa Djokic and Sanja Dobricanin
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13. Taubenberger KJ, Morens MD. 1918 Influenza: the Mother of All Pandemics. Emerg Infect Dis 2006; 12(1): 15-22
14. Johnson NP, Mueller J. Updating the accounts: global mortality of the 1918-1920 “Spanish” influenzapandemic. Bull Hist Med 2002; 76 (1): 105-15.
A. Krajcovic, J. Zibolenova, E. Halasova and H. Hudeckova
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12. Recommendations and Implementation During Emerging Infectious Diseases: A Case Study of the 2009 H1N1 InfluenzaPandemic. In Disaster Med Public Health. Prep. 2014 Apr 15:1-12. [Epub ahead of print]. PMID: 24735822
13. Mikas J, Lukacova D, Svihrova V, Hudeckova H. 2012. Analýza zaočkovanosti proti sezónnej a pandemickej chrípke na Slovensku. In Pediatria, No. 2, Year 7. Bratislava: SAMEDI, 2012. ISSN 1336-863X.
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Nutcharat Mangklakeree, Somdej Pinitsoontorn and Sompong Srisaenpang
presentation/proceeding) Proceeding in Agadir International Conference, 12-14 November 2009.
7. Prateepko T, Chaongsuvivatwong V. Patterns of perception toward influenzapandemics among the front-line responsibility health personnel in southern Thailand: a methodology approach. BMC Public Health. 2009; 9:161.
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Suda Louisirirotchanakul, Pornparn Rojanasang, Kleophant Thakerngpol, Naree Choosrichom, Kridsda Chaichoune, Phisanu Pooruk, Aphinya Namsai, Robert Webster and Pilaipan Puthavathana
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19. Neumann G, Kawaoka Y. Host range restriction and pathogenicity in the context of influenzapandemic. Emerg Infect Dis. 2006; 12:881-6.
20. Hazelton PR, Gelderblom HR. Electron microscopy for rapid diagnosis of infectious agents in emergent situation. Emerg Infect Dis. 2003; 9:294-303.
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22. Rowden G, Lewis MG. Experience with a three-hour electron microscopy