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Bhaskaracharya spanning the 5 th to the 12 th century ( Amma 1979 ; Waerden 1983). However, this glorious tradition seemed to be paused due to political and economic instability in Indian subcontinent. During 16 th and 17 th centuries, maps were prepared and used by the Mughal rulers to run smooth administration and establish a generalized revenue collection ( Habib 1974 ; Gole 1988 ). Since the 17 th century Europeans had also widely identified Indian Territory through maps for the expansion of trade and commerce ( Gole 1976 ). Another significant native tradition of

Effect of Azadirachta indica A. Juss (Meliaceae) Seed Oil and Extract Against Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae) Larval Susceptibility of Indian Subcontinent

Background. Development of resistance to chemical pesticides among the mosquito vectors leads researchers to investigate the potential mosquito control efficacy of various plant extracts.

Aim. To assess the larvicidal activity of neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss; Meliaceae) seed extract and oil against Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Family: Culicidae).

Materials and Methods. In order to determine the median lethal concentration (LC50), following probit analysis the fourth instar larvae of C. quinquefasciatus were exposed to A. indica seed extract and oil in different concentrations ranging from 2 to 64 μg/ml, and larval mortality was observed for each concentration after 24 hours of treatment. The median lethal time (LT50) values for a single concentration (2 × LC50) of oil and extract were determined based upon probit analysis.

Results. The 100 % larval mortality was observed due to both A. indica seed oil and extract at concentrations 32 μg/ml and 64 μg/ml, respectively. The A. indica oil and extract had LC50 values 8.041 and 15.495 μg/ml, respectively, and the LT50 values were 8.328 and 15.322 min, respectively.

Conclusion. The A. indica seed oil and extract showed excellent larvicidal activity against C. quinquefasciatus, and thus the products can be used effectively as indigenous mosquito control agents, alternative to conventional chemical mosquito larvicides.

studies as they are wider, receive more rainfall, both from the NE and SW monsoons, and are more prone to cyclones/floods than their western counterparts. Palaeo sea level changes along the east coast of the Indian subcontinent have also been reconstructed using various proxies including relict coral reefs from the Bay of Bengal, dating of molluscs and marine shells ( Rao et al., 1990 ; Rao and Rao, 1994 ; Vaz, 1996 ; Banerjee, 2000 ). In addition to the marine records, the archaeological and historical evidence also support the dynamic modifications of the east


Water is indispensably important for sustenance of life. Wetlands serve as potential reservoirs of water which also harbour coveted bioresources, which sustain animal life. Fish is a potential bioresource for nutrition and offer work places for people. The Asian continent has innumerable wetlands with the Indian sub-continent portraying myriads of wetlands of different kinds, including perennial wetlands (locally called “Beel” or “Taal”), seasonal floodplain wetlands (“Haor”) and river-formed oxbow wetlands (“Anua”). In addition to playing a pivotal role in providing nutrition and work places to the people, wetlands also play a significant role in flood management, in regulating biogeochemical cycles, and above all, perhaps, in the rehabilitation of the innumerable fish stocks.



Recent studies show that lowest bidder technique is mainly used in developing countries such as India to award a contract. It has been demonstrated that the lowest bid is not always the accurate one and can lead to cost overruns and time extensions amongst other problems. The aim of this study was to investigate the critical factors impacting contractor’s efficiency in Indian construction projects.

Research approach

A survey was sent to participants of construction projects awarded by the government with the lowest bidder technique in Uttar Pradesh, India. For further research, snowball sampling was used, and structured interviews were conducted amongst experienced managers and engineers of these projects on both client’s and contractor’s side.


It was observed that, to a greater extent, the delays were caused due to contractor’s opportunistic behaviour. The main findings are that new bidding methodologies are to be tested as they can lead to the choice of a more accurate and realistic bidder. In addition, subjective evaluation components, such as schedule and work-force, should be reflected in contract award methods in addition to the cost criteria. Further studies should be performed on the choice of contract awarding methodology based on the project size and type.

Originality value

The researcher’s focus was to analyze the influence of contracting methodologies and factors affecting contractor’s performance in lowest bid award project, where this is an area of least focus amongst researchers in the Indian subcontinent.


This study aims to demonstrate the roles that domestic and foreign languages have played and play as signs of national or religious identity and social prestige and as tools of political and economic power in multilingual Pakistan and Bangladesh. Before the countries gained independence from the British Empire in 1947 and before the formation of the Indian Union and Pakistan (which was divided into Pakistan and Bangladesh in 1971), the role of an official language, remote to the majority of population in Indian subcontinent, had been gradually played by Sanskrit, Persian, and English. After gaining independence, the new countries decided to replace English as the official language with domestic languages. Their efforts encountered many problems and resulted in various solutions. Urdu became the state language in Pakistan, which caused resistance in local ethnolinguistic groups because the language had been imported by refugees from India. This resistance was the strongest in East Pakistan, where a strong national and language awareness eventually contributed to the formation of an independent Bangladesh with Bengali as the state language. Despite struggle for the dominance of domestic languages, English has preserved its prestigious position both in Pakistan and Bangladesh, as a symbol of higher social position, a language of education and science, and a tool of economic and political power.

Trichosanthes dioica root extract induces tumor proliferation and attenuation of antioxidant system in albino mice bearing Ehrlich ascites carcinoma

Trichosanthes dioica Roxb. (Cucurbitaceae), called pointed gourd in English, is a dioecious climber grown widely in the Indian subcontinent. The present study assessed the influence of treatment of hydroalcoholic extract of Trichosanthes dioica root (TDA) on Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) in Swiss albino mice with effects on antioxidant systems. Twenty-four hours after intraperitoneal inoculation of tumor (EAC) cells in mice, TDA was administered at 25 and 50 mg/kg for 8 consecutive days. On the 9th day, half of the mice were sacrificed for estimation of tumor proliferation, hematological, and hepatic antioxidative parameters. The rest were kept for assessment of survival parameters. TDA exhibited dose dependent and significant increase in tumor weight, tumor volume, packed cell volume and viable cells and reduced non-viable cells and life span of EAC bearing animals. Hematological parameters were significantly worsened in TDA-treated mice. TDA treatment significantly aggravated the hepatic antioxidative parameters. The present study demonstrated that T. dioica root possessed tumor promoting activity in EAC bearing albino mice, plausibly mediated by attenuation of endogenous antioxidant systems.


The concept of globalization appeared in the Indian subcontinent in 1991. With the onset of liberalization, privatization and globalization a new chapter has been opened up in the Indian economy and her billion plus population. The Hugli district is one of the most renowned names in the handloom industry of West Bengal and a good percentage of people are engaged in this heritage industry. The study is conducted in five handloom clusters of the district, namely – Dhaniakhali - Somaspur, Begumpur, Haripal, Rajbolhat and Balagar. The main objectives of this paper were to investigate the effects of globalization on the rural handloom weaver community, in terms of their economic and social conditions. At the same time the article intends to analyse the changes in the over all production scenario of the handloom industry in the district due to modernization. It can be said that the handloom industry of the Hugli district is suffering from some inherent problems like low productivity, lack of product diversification and problems related to procuring raw materials. The co-operative sectors are indifferent to enlarging their market sphere. Though there are plenty of efficient and skilled weavers but they are only doing their traditional practices, the adoption of modern techniques is significantly poor among the weavers. Therefore the new generations are totally unwilling to accept weaving as their main occupation because of the uncertainty of the industry. The article also suggests some strategies to make this ever challenging industry globally competitive, such as, the identification of modern trends, promotion of exports, market assessment so that this heritage industry can cope with the modern trends and utilise the benefits of globalization.

.L., Waldner, C. (2006). Porcupine quill injuries in dogs: a retrospective of 296 cases (1998-2002). Can Vet J., 47, 677-682. PMid:16898110; PMCid:PMC1482438 12. Schneider, A.R., Chen, A.V., Tucker, R.L. (2010). Imaging diagnosis - vertebral canal porcupine quill with presumptive secondary arachnoid diverticulum. Vet Radiol Ultrasound., 51, 152-154. PMid:20402400 13. Gurung, K.K., Singh, R. (1996). Field guide to the Mammals of the Indian Subcontinent. Academic Press, San Diego PMid:8862263 14. Banfield, A.W.F. (1987). The Mammals of Canada (pp. 233-235). Hong Kong