Co–Zn nanocrystalline ferrites with chemical composition Co0:5Zn0:5Fe2O4 were synthesized by sol-gel and combustion methods. The sol-gel method was carried out in two ways, i.e. based on chelating agents PVA and PEG of high and low molecular weights. In auto-combustion method, the ratio of citric acid to metal nitrate was taken as 1:1, while in sol-gel method the chelating agents were taken based on oxygen balance. All the three samples were studied by thermogravimetric and differential thermal analysis for the identification of phase formation and ferritization temperature. The synthesized samples were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction and FT-IR spectroscopy without any thermal treatment. The measured lattice constants and observed characteristic IR absorption bands of the three samples are in good agreement with the reported values showing the formation of a cubic spinel structure. The crystallite sizes of all samples were determined using high intensity peaks and W-H plot. Size-Strain Plot method was also implemented since two of the samples showed low crystallite sizes. The least crystallite size (5.5 nm) was observed for the sample CZVP while the highest (23.8 nm) was observed for the sample CZCA. Cation distribution was proposed based on calculated and observed intensity ratios of selected planes from X ray diffraction data. All structural parameters were presented using experimental lattice constant and oxygen positional parameter, and they correlated with FT-IR results. Magnetic measurements were carried out using vibrating sample magnetometer at room temperature to obtain the characteristic parameters such as saturation magnetization, coercivity, remanence, squareness ratio and Bohr magnetons. Among all, the sample synthesized via citric acid autocombustion method displayed a remarkably higher magnetization of 53 emu/g and the remaining two samples displayed low magnetization values owing to their smaller crystallite sizes.
In this research, polyurethane (PU)/tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) composite was prepared via one-step polymerization method using different concentrations of TEOS in PU. The structural, optical and physical properties of PU composite were characterized by SEM imaging, FT-IR spectroscopy, water uptake, Raman spectroscopy and optical microscopy imaging of synthesized samples. The SEM results showed that by adding TEOS to the PU, the cell and window size of synthesized samples decreased. This result was also observed in the optical micrographs. The bonding characteristics of PU/TEOS composites were analyzed using Raman and FT-IR spectra. According to the FT-IR spectra, the degree of phase separation (DPS) and hydrogen bonding index, R, in 800 μl TEOS/PU had the highest R and DPS factors. By adding different concentrations of TEOS to PU, the apparent density decreased but the real density increased. The total, open and closed porosity of the synthesized samples were calculated. At low loading of TEOS in PU, the open porosity of the samples increased. The PU/TEOS composites may be promising candidates for absorbing sound.
Objective: The aim of the study was a comparative investigation by spectral and thermal analysis in order to asses a number of characteristics of different varieties ofrawmaterials of ursodeoxycholic acid and ibuprofen. The different dissolution behavior of two ursodeoxycholic acid pharmaceutical product by crystallinity pattern was investigated. Methods: Raw materials of ursodeoxycholic acid and ibuprofen were used. IR spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry and X-Ray Diffraction Analysis were applied. Results: The results show no crystallinitydifferences for different batches of the tested drugs. No solid solid transition was proved during sample preparation for transmission IR analysis. Conclusions: A combination of two more affordabletests by IR spectrometry and differential scanning calorimetry lead to the same results as X-Ray diffraction analysis for crystallinity similarity assessment of the studied substances. The dissolution differences of test drugs were not related to the polymorphism of the raw materials.
Aluminosilicate materials were obtained by sol-gel method, using different Al2O3 and SiO2 precursors in order to prepare sols based on water and organic solvents. As SiO2 precursors, Aerosil 200TM and tetraethoxysilane TEOS: Si(OC2H5)4 were applied, while DisperalTM and aluminium secondary butoxide ATSB: Al(OC4H9)3 were used for Al2O3 ones. Bulk samples were obtained by heating gels at 500 °C, 850 °C and at 1150 °C in air, while thin films were synthesized on carbon, steel and alundum (representing porous ceramics) substrates by the dip coating method. Thin films were annealed in air (steel and alundum) and in argon (carbon) at different temperatures, depending on the substrate type. The samples were synthesized as gels and coatings of the composition corresponding the that of 3Al2O3·2SiO2 mullite because of the specific valuable properties of this material. The structure of the annealed bulk samples and coatings was studied by FT-IR spectroscopy and XRD method (in standard and GID configurations). Additionally, the electron microscopy (SEM) together with EDS microanalysis were applied to describe the morphology and the chemical composition of thin films. The analysis of FT-IR spectra and X-ray diffraction patterns of bulk samples revealed the presence of γ-Al2O3 and δ-Al2O3 phases, together with the small amount of SiO2 in the particulate samples. This observation was confirmed by the bands due to vibrations of Al–O bonds occurring in γ-Al2O3 and δ-Al2O3 structures, in the range of 400 to 900 cm−1. The same phases (γ-Al2O3 and δ-Al2O) were observed in the deposited coatings, but the presence of particulate ones strongly depended on the type of Al2O3 and SiO2 precursor and on the heat treatment temperature. All thin films contained considerable amounts of amorphous phase.
The biosorption of lithium from batch systems by Arthrospira (Spirulina) platensis biomass was studied. Adsorption capacity of the biosorbent was investigated as a function of contact time, initial metals concentration and pH values. Lithium content in biomass was determined using Proton Induced Gamma Emission technique. The ability of spirulina biomass for lithium biosorption showed a maximum at the pH = 11. Equilibrium data fitted well with the Langmuir model with maximum adsorption capacity of 1.75 mg/g, while the kinetic data were best described using the pseudo second-order kinetic model. The IR spectrum of the Li-loaded biomass revealed that lithium ions could be primarily bind to –OH, –COOH, –NH, –NH2, and –NH3 groups present on biosorbent surface. Arthrospira platensis biomass could be applied as environmentally friendly sorbent for lithium removal from wastewater.
In this study novel transversal pneumatic artificial muscles (TPAM), made from composite – poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) matrix membrane and poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) satin reinforcement, are presented. Miniature TPAM consists of a flexible internal braid (IB) reinforcing the membrane and the external braid (EB). EB, with fibers arranged transversely to the IB, is placed laterally. Differently prepared TPAMs were tested for their effectiveness as actuators for robot drive and the PDMS/PET composite suitability was evaluated for applications in human gastrointestinal tract (chemical resistance, thermal characteristic). FT-IR spectra of the composite were compared for study PDMS impregnation process of PET satin and effect of immersion in selected solution. The composite shows outstanding biocompatibility and the muscles have competitive static load characteristics in comparison with other pneumatic artificial muscles (PAM). These results lead to believe, that in the near future painless examination of the gastrointestinal tract using a secure robot will be possible.
Spirulina platensis biomass is widely applied for different technological purposes. The process of lanthanum, chromium, uranium and vanadium accumulation and biosorption by Spirulina platensis biomass from single- and multi-component systems was studied. The influence of multi-component system on the spirulina biomass growth was less pronounced in comparison with the single-component ones. To trace the uptake of metals by spirulina biomass the neutron activation analysis was used. In the experiment on the accumulation the efficiency of studied metal uptake changes in the following order: La(V) > Cr(III) > U(VI) > V(V) (single-metal solutions) and Cr(III) > La(V) > V(V) > U(VI) (multi-metal system). The process of metals biosorption was studied during a two-hour experiment. The highest rate of metal adsorption for single-component systems was observed for lanthanum and chromium. While for the multi-component system the significant increase of vanadium and chromium content in biomass was observed. In biosorption experiments the rate of biosorption and the Kd value were calculated for each metal. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy was used to identify functional groups responsible for metal binding. The results of the present work show that spirulina biomass can be implemented as a low-cost sorbent for metal removal from industrial wastewater.
Double perovskite-type oxide Ca2BMoO6 materials, where B = Cr, La and Sm, were prepared by the sol-gel auto-combustion method for the first time. The role of different B-site cations on their synthesis, structures, and magnetic properties was investigated. The synthesis progress was followed by the Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and the samples’ structure was investigated by X-ray diffraction. The increase of the ionic radii B leads to the decrease of the t-value which reflects the structural distortion from the ideal cubic perovskite. Magnetization measurements were made with a SQUID magnetometer. All compounds are ferimagnetic and magnetic properties are indirectly influenced by the distortion degree of the lattice and disorder on the B/B’ positions
A comparison of the influence of two alloy pre-treatments and temperature treatments on the formation and composition of zirconium based conversion coating on the AA2024 alloy has been performed. The investigation employed mass changes, atomic force microscopy (AFM), XRD dispersive spectroscopy (EDX), infrared spectroscopy (IR) and electrochemical tests by open circuit potential (OCP) measurements. Pre-treatment using only alkaline etching is called alkaline pre-treatment. When alkaline etching is followed by de-oxidization in a phosphoric acid solution the process is called acidic pre-treatment. Conversion coatings were formed in Pragokor BL. IR analysis revealed the formation of a phosphate on the alloy surface. EDX analysis showed Mg dissolution. The Zr content increased with the temperature of the conversion coating formation. Both pre-treatment methods provided a phosphate layer on the alloy surface.
The effect of supports on coke deposition on supported platinum and platinum-tin catalysts investigated by FT-IR spectroscopy
Coke deposit is produced from ethylene on the surface of the platinum and platinum-tin catalysts supported on two various Al2 O3, SiO2 and SiO2 -Al2O3. The coke amount and the structure depend on the type and the amount of the components introduced onto the catalyst support and on the type of the support. It has been found that the surface area of the support has no significant effect on the type of species in the coke deposit. The analysis of the FT-IR spectra has shown the presence of different species on the surface of the catalysts, including carboxyl groups, pseudo-graphite (polyaromatic) structures, polyphenylene groups, acetyl groups, carbonyl groups of acetone and formate type, enol species.