Rutting occurs due to accumulation of incrementally small permanent deformations from each load application and it can cause irreparable problems in pavements. On the other hand, the Marshall Mix design which is known as the main method in Iran, the lack of a simple test to determine specimen resistance to permanent deformation as the major reason for asphalt rutting is noticeable. Although today many devices are used for rutting measurement, none of them have the ability to use in wider field. In addition, prevalent methods of evaluating rutting potential are usually costly and time consuming. Mentioned parameters illustrate the necessity of developing a simple method, not only having fine precision, but also are able to predict rutting performance with low cost in the short term in laboratory. In this research, after performing the main tests on specimens, IDT test results and Marshall Parameters were used to develop a mathematical model to estimate specimen rut depth. The model is validated by using ANN and makes it possible to evaluate mixtures rutting potential while OBC is being determined in laboratory. So not only is there no need to use expensive instruments of rutting test, but also a remarkable time saving in mix design procedure is achievable.
Distance Education (DE) theorists have argued about the requirement for a theory to be comprehensive in a way that can explicate many of the activities associated with DE. Currently, Transactional Distance Theory (TDT) (Moore, 1993) and the Theory of Instructional Dialogue (IDT) (Caspi & Gorsky, 2006) are the most prominent theories, yet they still do not represent a unified and comprehensive theory for DE. This paper provides a review of the existing literature on DE theories and identifies potential gaps in theorising distance education. Building on Giddens’ (1984) work, an innovative approach to theorising DE is proposed through the conceptualisation of the Adapting Structuration Theory In Distance Education (ASTIDE) model as a means to explicate DE operations and practices at the institutional and national/international level. It also presents evidence, from a larger study, of the necessity of a comprehensive model such as the ASTIDE constructed through an investigation into the DE systems of developing and developed countries.
The study aims to investigate the impact of organisational e-readiness on e-marketing diffusion in tourism businesses of Ethiopia. The research is based on a questionnaire survey and uses Structural Equation Modelling to test the conceptual model that extends technology diffusion theories. The study validates the conceptual model extended from Perceived Organisational E-readiness, Innovation Diffusion Theory and Technology Adoption Model to explain e-marketing diffusion. The findings indicated that perceived organisational e-readiness significantly affects e-marketing diffusion. The result implied that technology diffusion theories such as Technology Adoption Model and perceived organ-isational e-readiness were valid in demonstrating e-marketing diffusion. Though ease of use affected e-marketing diffusion, the impacts of compatibility and relative advantage were not significant; and thus, the indirect effect of organisational e-readiness on e-marketing diffusion was not significant. The finding also reinforces the necessity of a multilevel model to explain e-marketing diffusion in developing countries.
The fabrication procedure and characterization of low-cost electrodes for capacitive level sensors realized on a flexible substrate are presented in this paper. The aim was to prepare conductive electrodes by printing of silver and PEDOT:PSS pastes on coated PET foil. Individual interdigital capacitors and a system with embedded microcontroller readout were designed for a comparative study. Individual capacitors in the form of interdigital electrodes (IDT) were designed with different finger width/spacing dimensions from 300/300 μm to 800/800 μm, a finger length 10 mm and 15 mm and an overall length of 100 mm. A demonstrator device featuring an integrated microcontroller, sensing and reference capacitive sensors and a resistive temperature sensor was realized to proof a practical utilization. The microcontroller is used to calculate capacitances of IDT electrodes in terms of charging time proportional to the fluid level. The design with reference capacitor can be directly applied to different fluids with a wide range of conductivities and dielectric constants without recalibration. The printed structures were thermally laminated with covering PET foil. The sensitivity of the fabricated devices was characterized in liquids with different relative permittivity and conductivity (water and oil). The highest measured sensitivity was 0.7 pF/mm and 0.08 pF/mm for water and oil respectively, with resolution down to 0.1 mm.
Creep compliance of the hot-mix asphalt (HMA) is a primary input of the current pavement thermal cracking prediction model used in the US. This paper discusses a process of training an Artificial Neural Network (ANN) to correlate the creep compliance values obtained from the Indirect Tension (IDT) with similar values obtained on small HMA beams from the Bending Beam Rheometer (BBR). In addition, ANNs are also trained to predict HMA creep compliance from the creep compliance of asphalt binder and vice versa using the BBR setup. All trained ANNs exhibited a very high correlation of 97 to 99 percent between predicted and measured values. The binder creep compliance functions built on the ANN-predicted discrete values also exhibited a good correlation when compared with the laboratory experiments. However, the simulation of trained ANNs on the independent dataset produced a significant deviation from the measured values which was most likely caused by the differences in material composition, such as aggregate type and gradation, presence of recycled additives, and binder type.
In 1982 Laborde, Payan and Xuong [Independent sets and longest directed paths in digraphs, in: Graphs and other combinatorial topics (Prague, 1982) 173-177 (Teubner-Texte Math., 59 1983)] conjectured that every digraph has an independent detour transversal (IDT), i.e. an independent set which intersects every longest path. Havet [Stable set meeting every longest path, Discrete Math. 289 (2004) 169-173] showed that the conjecture holds for digraphs with independence number two. A digraph is p-deficient if its order is exactly p more than the order of its longest paths. It follows easily from Havet’s result that for p = 1, 2 every p-deficient digraph has an independent detour transversal. This paper explores the existence of independent detour transversals in 3-deficient digraphs.
Integracija osebnih zdravstvenih sistemov v inteligentna bivalna okolja
Rešitve s področja informacijskih in komunikacijskih tehnologij (IKT) lahko prispevajo k boljši oskrbi kroničnih bolnikov in starejših. Posebej so aktualni osebni zdravstveni sistemi (angl. personal health systems - PHS), ki omogočajo oddaljeno spremljanje zdravstvenega stanja bolnikov, predvsem kroničnih. Drugi sklop aktualnih rešitev so inteligentna bivalna okolja, ki lahko bolnim in invalidnim osebam olajšajo vsakodnevna opravila in s tem podaljašajo obdobje samostojnega življenja doma.
Razširjenost kroničnih bolezni in tržni potencial, ki ga izkazujejo tako sistemi PHS kot rešitve inteligentnih domov, navajata na sklep, da obstaja krog potencialnih uporabnikov obeh sklopov storitev. Predvidevamo, da bi imela tesnejša integracija obeh vrst sistemov pozitivne učinke tako v smislu tehnične izvedbe in cen storitev kot tudi večje uporabnosti zaradi manjšega števila različnih uporabniških naprav oz. vmesnikov.
Koncept integracije storitev PHS v sisteme inteligentnih domov smo uresničili v okviru treh pilotnih projektov. Za Dom IRIS smo razvili sistem za spremljanje krvnega tlaka in ga integrirali v obstoječo rešitev za upravljanje doma. Delo smo nadaljevali v okviru projekta Inteligentni dom Telekom (IDT), pri katerem smo razvili celovitorešitev inteligentnega doma, namenjeno izvajanju storitev v operaterskem okolju. Tretji pilot je rešitev Moje zdravje, pri kateri smo zdravstvene storitve integrirali v TV vmesnik nove generacije.
Rezultati pilotnih projektov kažejo na smiselnost koncepta integracije sistemov tako s stališča učinkovitejše tehnične izvedbe kot tudi večje uporabnosti in nižje cene storitev. Nadaljnji izzivi so povezani z oblikovanjem poslovnih modelov, udejanjanjem navezave na zdravstveni informacijski sistem ter ustrezno vključitvijo zdravstvenih delavcev v storitve telemedicine.
the revision of the Constitution of Romania was published in the Official Journal of Romania, Part I, no. 100 of 10 February 2014.  Access: http://www.anr.gov.ro/docs/legislatie/internationala/Declaratia_Universala_a_Drepturilor_Omului.pdf  Access: http://www.cdep.ro/pls/legis/legis_pck.htp_act_text?idt=63815  Nicolae Pavel, Equality of citizens' rights and non-discrimination, Publishing House, Universul Juridic, Bucharest, 2010, pp. 251-255.  Simina Elena Tănăsescu, Principle of equality in Romanian law, Publishing House, ALL BECK, Bucharest, 1999, pp