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Abstract

The basis for SMART VILLAGE development is a high-quality infrastructure for civilian equipment and services, including the coverage of rural villages by high-speed Internet. The aim of the article is to evaluate the support and impacts of these activities through the Czech Rural Development Program in the period 2007–2013 and, according to the ex-post evaluation, to further identify policy-implications. The results of the analysis show a clear positive impact of the support of the service infrastructure on the development of supported municipalities, on the contrary, the results of supporting the connection of the rural population to the Internet are patchy.

Abstract

The services sector is characterised by a number of specifics. Their identification in ICT implementation in businesses facilitates the decision-making of services industries for such information technologies which allow businesses to differentiate their services from competitors and increase productivity. Therefore is important to identify the core activities of companies in relation to the nature of the production of services sectors, corporate strategies and services specifics.

The Effects of Delays in the Dissemination and Usage of Broadband Internet

Information and telecommunication technology development is undeniably one of the most important factors for global knowledge diffusion and digital society creation processes in the contemporary world economy. The purpose of this paper is to analyze ICT infrastructure advances having taken place in the European Union, Japan and the United States in last fifteen years, and - based on the analysis results - to specify the most significant, present and potential future problems for Polish economy due to its ICT usage backwardness. While ICT infrastructure development level in Poland is closing to the EU averages, still the vital issue is lack of Internet usage possibilities and increasing digital divide between urban and rural regions, which in the near future can constrain a socioeconomic growth and competitiveness of Polish economy.

Summary

Solutions of the Information and Communication Technology (ICT) are the foundation of modern economic organizations in a knowledge economy. This is the case in particular in intelligent organizations, for which the advanced ICT infrastructure is the sine qua non condition for the effective knowledge management. This article is aimed at describing the role of modern ICT trends, which are described as SMAC, (Social, Mobility, Analytics, Cloud), and are becoming an essential ICT element supporting management processes. Such solutions enable to create new models of organization operations on the global markets using strategic resources, such as the knowledge supported with SMAC solutions. The arguments are illustrated with results of own research conducted by the author in 2014-2016 in selected SME’s from the Mazowieckie and Wielkopolskie rovinces and their reference to the general development trends in this area.

Abstract

Research purpose. Smart City technologies offer great promise for a higher quality of life, including improved public services, in an era of rapid and intense global urbanization. The use of intelligent or smart information and communication technologies to produce more efficient systems of services in those urban areas, captured under the broad rubric of “smart cities,” also create new vectors of risk and vulnerability. The aim of this article is to raise consideration of an integrated cross-domain approach for risk reduction based on the risks smart cities are exposed to, on the one hand, from natural disasters and, on the other, from cyber-attacks.

Design / Methodology / Approach. This contribution describes and explains the risk profile for which smart cities are exposed to both natural disasters and cyber-attacks. The vulnerability of smart city technologies to natural hazards and cyber-attacks will first be summarized briefly from each domain, outlining those respective domain characteristics. Subsequently, methods and approaches for risk reduction in the areas of natural hazards and ICT security will be examined in order to create the basis for an integrated cross-domain approach to risk reduction. Differences are also clearly identified if an adaptation of a risk reduction pattern appears unsuitable. Finally, the results are summarized into an initial, preliminary integrated cross-domain approach to risk reduction.

Findings. Risk management in the two domains of ICT security and natural hazards is basically similar. Both domains use a multilayer approach in risk reduction, both have reasonably well-defined regimes and established risk management protocols. At the same time, both domains share a policymaking and policy implementation challenge of the difficulty of appropriately forecasting future risk and making corresponding resource commitments to address future risk. Despite similarities, different concepts like the CIA Triad, community resilience, absorption capacity and so on exist too. Future research of these concepts could lead to improve risk management.

Originality / Value / Practical implications. Cyber-attacks on the ICT infrastructure of smart cities are a major vulnerability – but relatively little systematic evaluation exists on the topic. Likewise, ICT infrastructure is vulnerable to natural disasters too – and the risk of more severe natural disasters in the context of a global trend toward massive cities is increasing dramatically. Explicit consideration of the issues associated with cross-domain integration of reduction of interdependent risk is a necessary step in ensuring smart city technologies also serve to promote longer-term community sustainability and resilience.

Abstract

With the development of technology in the 21st Century, education systems attempt to integrate technology-based tools to improve experiences in pedagogy and administration. It is becoming increasingly prominent to build human and ICT infrastructure capacities at universities from policy to implementation level. Using a critical discourse analysis, this study investigates the articulation of ICT capacity building strategies from both national and institutional ICT policies in Rwanda, focusing on the higher education. Eleven policy documents were collected and deeply analyzed to understand which claims of ICT capacity building are made. The analysis shows that strategies for building ICT capacities are evidently observed from national level policies and only in two institutional policies (KIST and NUR). Among 25 components of ICT capacity building used, the ones related to human capacity are not plainly described. Additionally, neither national nor institutional policy documents include the creation of financial schemes for students to acquire ICT tools whilst learners are key stakeholders. Although there is some translation of ICT capacity building strategies from national to some institutional policies, planning for motivation and provision of incentives to innovators is not stated in any of the institutional policies and this is a key to effective technology integration.

Abstract

E-government is recognized as a tool for improving transparency and openness in the public sector and for combatting corruption. Understanding the relationship between e-government development and the level of corruption would allow for a more effective leveraging of related projects in anti-corruption efforts. This paper examines the impact of e-government development on the level of corruption in the context of economic perspective. In contrast to previous studies, this empirical relationship is measured across sub-indices (dimensions) of related indices between 2002 and 2016. The results show that higher levels of e-government development are related to lower levels of corruption. The three most important dimensions found are the environment sub-index, which assesses the extent to which a country’s market conditions and regulatory framework support entrepreneurship, innovation, and ICT development; the usage sub-index, which assesses the level of ICT adoption by a society’s main stakeholders; and the telecommunication infrastructure sub-index measuring a country’s ICT infrastructure capacity. Following these findings, certain ways of influencing of the level of corruption by a stimulation of concrete e-government development dimensions can be drawn. This is important especially in the time of a financial crisis and its consequences, which are also discussed in this paper.

Abstract

The paper deals with the role of ICT and the related infrastructures to induce innovations for sustainable rural development. In particular, it focuses on the innovations induced by ICT in farms and in new rural firms, and on how digital infrastructures support and generate social innovation mechanisms, leading to the consolidation of entrepreneurship and dissemination of ICT-based innovation in rural areas. The hypothesis is that the presence of digital infrastructures generates a double effect: overcoming the concept of geographical proximity (relevant for remote rural areas) and promoting social innovation. In particular, this paper examines the role of social innovation to create a new demand for products, services and organisational models for farms and rural enterprises, promoting further innovation. To target the objectives, the work analyses three case studies of new business models (BMs) based on ICT innovation. The analysis focuses on the most important interactions, learning and organisational processes within the new enterprises and among the new farms/enterprises and the other economic and institutional actors, and on how they were shaped and changed by the use of ICT, relating them to a conceptual model. These three cases, although pioneering, are important since they give an original response to some of the main problems and needs of remote and inner rural areas, as for the access to high value segment of food market, the information deliveries about attractiveness of landscape and countryside for foreigners, investors and tourists and the creation of new stable relation with consumers/citizens in the urban areas. The three cases have been analysed with the aim to identify how the ICT, and the related innovations, create an interconnection between four characteristic elements of the BMs (value creation, supply chain, customer interfaces, financial model) and the restructuring of proximity dimensions (cognitive, institutional, social, geographical, organizational). The work shows how these three cases have several communalities, but also different aspects with respect to our objective of analysis: there are different ways in which the four characteristic elements of the BM are constructed and also different in the role that the different dimensions of proximity play in structuring the innovation process in each one of them. More generally, the results of the work also lead to consider a new role for public investments in ICT infrastructures: public administrations should intervene in order to create a coherence within projects of public and private initiatives.

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