Customer preferences on the real estate market have been a topic of scientific research for decades. Recently, a lot of attention has been given to the issue of housing attitudes and needs of chosen groups of buyers. Among them, a particular increase in interest in real estate meeting the needs of the elderly and young buyers has been observed. However, Polish literature lacks a holistic analysis of consumer preferences through their entire lives.
The article recognizes the phenomenon of the changing preferences of potential real estate buyers depending on their current stage of life. All the age groups for a representative quota sample of Poznan citizens were asked to assess the importance of real estate cost factors. This allowed the housing attitudes of potential participants of the real estate market to be reconstructed in view of the changes in their adult lives. The conclusions drawn from the research might be useful for both academic discourse, and for practical application on the real estate market.
In paragraph 3 of its Article 3, the Treaty on European Union (TEU) requires the EU to go after the goal of a highly competitive social market economy for the first time. It is noticeable in the aforementioned Treaty clause that although it deals with the EU internal market, its authors burdened it with a mission that is far more socially-oriented than market-oriented. However, is „a highly competitive social market econo-my“ of today a meaningful goal and does the EU in its present form have the project and powers to achieve such an objective? The paper is a combination of economic and legal -political analysis through which the authors try to answer three main questions: What is the contemporary meaning of the term “social market economy” in the both economic and EU-law academic theory? Can the EU within the powers conferred to it positively fulfill such an objective, or can it just approach it by weakening the still pre-vailing tendency towards liberalization and deregulation brought about by the construc-tion of the EU internal market and by the promotion of its freedoms?
The paper analyzes the distributional effects of social transfers in Bulgaria in the period 2000-2014, using income inequality decomposition by factor components. The results suggest that social transfers mitigate income inequality, but this effect varies depending on the type of transfer. Pensions exert the strongest influence due to their significant share in total income, which also rises over time. Family allowances are pro-poor in nature, but because of their small share in beneficiaries’ total income, their impact on overall inequality is much weaker. “Other social benefits” have the weakest inequality-reducing effect, which is due to their higher concentration towards the richest decile and increasing share in total income. Despite the inequality-decreasing impact of social transfers, we argue that they should not be regarded as the sole remedy for the sharp income disparities in the country, but need to be accompanied by relevant active labor market policies.
This paper discusses whether the social dependency mentality in Romania is a consequence of path (past) dependence (that is, the country’s cultural and historical inheritance), or of the failure of social protection policies implemented after 1990. By taking a deductive approach and using data from Eurobarometers and several international databases, as well as by conducting several statistical analyses, we first identify the socio-economic and institutional factors associated with social dependency mentality in former communist countries, today members of the EU. Drawing on the results obtained, we then characterize the situation in Romania and provide explanations on two levels: dependence mentality as cultural inheritance - hypothesis supported by sociological, psychological and cultural-anthropological studies - and dependence mentality as a consequence of the implemented social protection policies which did not solve the issue of poverty but rather speak about incoherence, lack of vision, populism etc. We conclude that social dependency mentality is associated with the burden of the past, but also with the level and quality of education and the government strength to implement policies and provide incentives for individual responsibility in a free market. The limitations in terms of data coverage do not allow us to establish the exact weight each of the factors has in explaining social dependency mentality and, consequently, further studies are necessary considering the importance this issue currently has in poverty reduction.
The paper examined the effects of energy use on socioeconomic predictors in Africa. The Gary Becker hypothesis and the Michael Grossman demand for healthcare model were used to interact with energy related predictors on socioeconomic essentials. Our experimented model foretold the urgent need for government intervention programmes to resolve the energy misery in the African region.
Hukou registration is an instrument to control nonplanned population and capital movements, which the Chinese Communist Party has been exploiting extensively since the 1950s. It requires that each Chinese citizen be classified as either an agricultural or nonagricultural hukou inheritor and be distinguished by their location with respect to an administrative unit. Hukou distribution used to be entirely determined by birth, but nowadays, Chinese citizens can self-select their hukou status based on their ability that causes selection bias in conventional wage decomposition by hukou types. To avoid this bias, I estimated hukou-based earning discrimination by matching Chinese individuals based on a rich set of individual-, family-, and society-level characteristics. By deploying a recent nationally representative dataset, this paper finds that significant earning discriminations exist against agricultural hukou people. I further investigated the impact of hukou adoption within work ownership, work and employer types, and labor contract conditions. I argue that earning difference by hukou is not due to rural–urban segregations; rather, it is systematic and institutionally enforced. This is because, contrary to self-employment and no labor contract conditions, discrimination exists only when others employ them and where a labor contract condition is enforced. Moreover, they face discrimination only when they work for the Chinese government, not when they work for private firms, and they face higher discrimination in nonagriculture-related professions compared to agriculture-related professions.
Morphometric parameters of the lateral ventricle choroid plexus epithelial cells (average area, perimeter, bounding rectangle area, average nuclear area, nuclear perimeter, nuclear circularity and average nucleocytoplasmic ratio) were studied in postnatal and juvenile (10th, 16th and 38th postnatal days) 15 male and 15 female rats. The results were statistically analyzed by factorial ANOVA.
Mean values of epithelial cells area, bounding rectangle area and perimeter were significantly higher in 16 days old, than in 10 and 38 days old rats. Opposite to this, the nucleocytoplasmic ratio was lower in the 16 days old, than in 10 and 38 days old rats. Average nuclear area and perimeter showed similar trends, while nuclear circularity increased from the 10th to the 38th day. Significant sex differences were in the epithelial cells area, bounding rectangle area and perimeter, being higher in males than in females in both 16 and 38 days groups. Nucleocytoplasmic ratio was higher in 10 days old male rats, but lower in 16 and 38 days old male rats.
Generally, choroid epithelial cells size increased on the 16th and then decreased on the 38th day, but still remained higher compared to the 10th day. Nuclear size after increasing on day 16, also decreased on day 38, but to values lower than on day 10. The general decrease of nucleocytoplasmic ratio which accompanied these changes indirectly suggests a functional decrease. In the investigated period the male rat choroid epithelial cells were larger, but their nucleocytoplasmic ratio, which suggests the functional status, was lower than in females, indicating sex differences in the growth dynamics of the rat choroid plexus.
Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by fever and serosal inflammation. The reasons for the disorder are mutations in the Mediterranean fever (MEFV) gene; the most common of which are M694V, M680I, M694I and V726A. In this study, we aimed to screen these common mutations of the MEFV gene and then determine the prevalence of FMF according to these mutations in Adıyaman, Southeast Anatolia, Turkey. Seven hundred and sixty-seven healthy individuals from the region of Adıyaman participated in the study. Polymerase chain reaction-amplification refractory mutation system (PCR-ARMS) methods were used to determine the common mutations of the MEFV gene. Twenty-six (3.9%) individuals had only one mutation in the MEFV gene, 25 individuals were heterozygous and one person was homozygous for the V726A mutation (0.15%). In the present study, the V726A mutation (50.0%) was the most frequent, followed by M694V (38.5%), M680I (7.7%) and M694I (3.8%). It was seen that the carrier rate was very low and the prevalence of FMF was 0.15%, according to the common mutations of the MEFV gene in Adıyaman, Southeast Anatolia, Turkey.
The cytotoxic activity of petroleum ether extract of the leaves of Cassia roxburghii Linn. against HCT-116 and MCF-7 cell lines resulted with IC50=34.9 and 38.04 μg/ml, respectively, while against HepG-2 showed no activity. A bioassay guided-fractionation approach was conducted to isolate and identify the active cytotoxic principles. Further chromatographic separation and purification of the petroleum ether extract resulted in the isolation of two anthraquinones identified as aloe-emodin acetate and aloe-emodin, along with stigmasterol, β-sitosterol and palmitic acid. The structure elucidation of isolated compounds was performend using 1D, 2D-NMR and HR-MS. Furthermore, the cytotoxicity of aloe-emodin acetate and aloe-emodin were evaluated and resulted with IC50=153.30 and 70.02 μg/ml against HCT-116 and with 93.20 and 53.20 μg/ml against MCF-7, respectively, while against HepG-2 showed no activity. Moreover, the antiviral activity of the two isolated anthraquinones was tested against influenza virus-A, and resulted with IC50=10.23 as well as 2.00 and with CC50=1.32 and 0.47 μg/ml, respectively.
Welfare Levels in Heritage Breed vs. Commercial Laying Hens in the Litter System
The objective of the study was to determine differences in welfare levels between heritage breed hens (Yellowleg Partridge, Sussex, Leghorn) and commercial crosses (ISA Brown, Lohmann Brown, Hy-Line) kept in the litter system with no outdoor access. The experiment was carried out with 180 hens of three heritage breeds (Yellowleg Partridge, Sussex, Leghorn) and 180 commercial crosses of laying hens (Hy-Line, ISA Brown, Lohmann). Layers were reared in the litter system with no outdoor access. During the experiment, production data were collected until 38 days of age and birds' behaviour was monitored for 24 h at 18, 20, 32 and 38 weeks of age. O f the three commercial lines of laying hens kept in the litter system with no outdoor access, the lowest welfare levels were characteristic of ISA Brown birds. Hy-Line and Lohmann layers were characterized by comparable welfare levels that were higher in relation to ISA Brown layers. The results also showed that Sussex hens reared in the litter system had higher welfare levels than Yellowleg Partridge and Leghorn hens. When comparing the results of heritage breed and commercial hens, it can be said that mortality and increased levels of aggression in heritage breed hens kept in the litter system suggest that their welfare levels were lower than in commercial layers.