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Abstract

One of the biggest challenges facing the education system in Bosnia and Herzegovina is bridging the gap between the current state of higher education and the demand for research, innovation and a robust STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering, Mathematics) curriculum. Higher education instiutions (HEIs) face poor R&D infrastructure while companies struggle with limited resources and the lack of internal researchers, all of which affect their capabilities to utilize university knowledge and research that will lead to further collaborations and innovations in STEM. Universities are primarily seen as a source of future employees as well as as a source of knowledge and innovation. This study aims to provide an overview and systematic analysis of the current state of scientific and research infrastructure and human resources in public and private universities located in the Sarajevo Canton region. This is done by using primary data collected through semi-structured interviews and a self-reporting comprehensive questionnaire in order to identify areas where further reforms and investments are needed. An analysis of the secondary data sources, such as current strategic documents and the existing assessments of education, was conducted. Consequently, this study offers several practical implications, including policy recommendations in areas such as higher education, research infrastructure and academic excellence, cooperation with the private sector, and IT infrastructure improvements.

Abstract

The current publication of scientific journals is transitioning from a print format format to an electronic format, which has a different management model than before. Publication of scientific journals is an important thing in the existence of universities. In the dissemination of science results of an education, research, and community service generated by college civitas (Students & Lecturers) can be done with the publication of scientific journals. The purpose of this study is to determine the strategy of management publication of scientific journals that publish many articles of students at higher education. The type of this research is qualitative descriptive research. The research data were collected by indepth interview the Director of Graduate, Head of journal publishing unit, and staff of journal publishing unit. This research was conducted at the Journal Publishing Unit of Postgraduate of Brawijaya University. The managers of scientific journal publications should be continue to improve scientific publishing services and the quality of published articles, so that the management of scientific publications can compete with other electronic journals. The development of electronic journals in Indonesia has grown rapidly, within three years of electronic journal publication in Indonesia has increased sharply, from 1500 journals in 2012 to 16280 journals in 2016. This is a challenge for managers of scientific publications in Brawijaya University. The strategy in developing the management of scientific journal publications of students is to hold training activities of scientific journal writing for students to be able to provide the availability of quality articles. Benchmarking activities and management training for journal editing teams to maintain quality management and scientific journal publications. In addition, it is necessary to improve the reputation of scientific journals by paying attention to the Impact Factor; Index Journal, Ranking Journal, h-index, Number of Cites, & Percentage of Rejection Rates in managed journals.

Abstract

With the advent of the new and continuously improving technologies, in a couple of years DNA sequencing can be as commonplace as a simple blood test. The growth of sequencing efficiency has a larger exponent than the Moore’s law of standard processors, hence alignment and further processing of sequenced data is the bottleneck. The usage of FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Arrays) technology may provide an efficient alternative. We propose a simple algorithm for DNA sequence alignment, which can be realized efficiently by nucleotic principal agents of Non.Neumann nature. The prototype FPGA implementation runs on a small Terasic DE1-SoC demo board with a Cyclone V chip. We present test results and furthermore analyse the theoretical scalability of this system, showing that the execution time is independent of the length of reference genome sequences. A special advantage of this parallel algorithm is that it performs exhaustive search producing all match variants up to a predetermined number of point (mutation) errors.

Abstract

Learning quantitative courses in higher education is difficult because students need to understand complex principles and solve complicated questions. In these courses, new knowledge depends on prior knowledge and when gaps in students’ understanding occur, they are difficult to overcome. The study examines a new model called comprehensive technology-based learning (CTBL) designed to overcome these difficulties.

The problem is addressed by full coverage of the curriculum in a variety of textual and video learning tools, as well as an ongoing process of diagnosis and prognosis, designed to overcome students’ difficulties and knowledge gaps. The study examined the students’ attitudes towards CTBL model relating to three quantitative courses (n 1=39, n 2=25, n 3=18, ntotal). It points out that a quantitative course based on CTBL significantly nurtures students’ learning. Improving learning and overcoming knowledge gaps are influenced by several characteristics: Full coverage of the curriculum, excellent learning experience, repetition of the material without limitations, flexibility to learn outside the classroom, a variety of means to choose which ones are more appropriate, and making learning much easier. Beyond that, the diagnosis and prognosis done by the lecturer cause the instructor to intervene in real time, to solve the students’ difficulties on an ongoing basis.

Abstract

According to WHO estimates, 400 million people suffer from diabetes, and this number is likely to double by year 2030. Unfortunately, diabetes can have severe complications like glaucoma or retinopathy, which both can cause blindness. The main goal of our research is to provide an automated procedure that can detect retinopathy-related lesions of the retina from fundus images. This paper focuses on the segmentation of so-called white lesions of the retina that include hard and soft exudates. The established procedure consists of three main phases. The preprocessing step compensates the various luminosity patterns found in retinal images, using background and foreground pixel extraction and a data normalization operator similar to Z-transform. This is followed by a modified SLIC algorithm that provides homogeneous superpixels in the image. The final step is an ANN-based classification of pixels using fifteen features extracted from the neighborhood of the pixels taken from the equalized images and from the properties of the superpixel where the pixel belongs. The proposed methodology was tested using high-resolution fundus images originating from the IDRiD database. Pixelwise accuracy is characterized by a 54% Dice score in average, but the presence of exudates is detected with 94% precision.

Abstract

Recently, quality issues have been widely addressed in the higher education sector as a result of which the identification and the role of stakeholders have come to the forefront. When evaluating service quality in higher education, three distinct levels of operation could be taken into account, namely, institutional level, program or faculty level and course level, on which the relevant stakeholders perceive service quality by focusing on different attributes. Besides students considered as primary stakeholders, the academic staff is paid considerable attention as they have a direct influence on how students perceive educational service quality. The establishment of a course level service quality framework of a special course is presented in this paper by demonstrating not only the students’ but also the supervisors’ aspects through a student questionnaire, focus group discussions and personal interviews. These approaches resulted in a new, more sophisticated understanding of service quality on course level.

Abstract

The aim of the study is to determine the level of financial literacy of academic youth from rural areas in the V4 Group countries, as well as to compare the results obtained with the level of financial literacy of young people from cities. The source of data used for analysis and inference were primary information obtained from own research (PAPI method, 900 people). The research used a set of questions to assess the level of financial literacy of adults proposed by the OECD INFE. In addition to primary sources, secondary sources were also used to achieve the goal. The measures of descriptive statistics and one-way analysis of variance (F) were used. The level of financial literacy was determined at the medium level, which may indicate the low effectiveness of financial education measures implemented at different levels of education. The component of financial literacy where students from rural areas had the lowest scores was basic financial knowledge. Only 43% of people from rural areas achieved the minimum target score.

Abstract

The need for classifying workers in the labour market exists in the case of information asymmetry between workers and employers. It is expected that certain mechanisms will be developed in order to overcome this information asymmetry. One of those mechanisms is signalling, whose basic idea is that highly productive workers take certain actions in order to separate themselves from the low productive workers. This paper reviews an economic role of education as a signal in the labour market. The goal of the paper is to show theoretically how education can play the role of signal in order to solve the problems caused by the asymmetric information. The importance of such analysis is reflected in the fact that the recommendations for educational policy makers in terms of investment in education are different depending on whether education serves as a mechanism for improving productivity or as a mechanism for signalling different productive capacity. It is shown that these differences arise from distinct ways of measuring social rates of return on investment in education.

Abstract

Objective: Since more diverse audiences attend universities, nowadays, more advanced educational approaches are required. The current study explores the role of culture of learning transformations in facing this challenge. We employ the notion of ‘cultures of learning’ to draw attention to the socio-cultural, sustainable and competence-oriented aspects of key educational practices. We are focusing on advances in students’ learning-culture, which are implemented at the university: interdisciplinary, transformative sustainability learning and experiential learning.

Methodology: The paper considers practical issues related to the educational approaches, their benefits and limitations.

Findings: The results of the observations indicated that students’ learning culture was highly affected by educational approaches.

Value Added: We highlight that mutual relations exist between learning-culture and teaching-culture and exactly the student-teacher dialogue should be changed to transform traditional learning in higher education.

Recommendations: Interdisciplinarity and creativity can serve as the key factors in establishing a productive educational cycle that fosters a learning-culture based on students’ needs and values consideration.

Abstract

The change of the political regime in Romania determined a real revolution in the activity of the trade unions which suddenly had to change their objectives and their working methods. These organisations were in a position to struggle for the status of universities and their professors in a society that considered that 3% of GDP for education is too much. Is possible to understand that trade unions acting instead of universities managers, but immediately after 1989, the rectors and their teams depended by the politicians in a way that they cannot ask more for the needs of universities, and these situations are comparable with ones manifested in other countries, like Peru, Bolivia or Ecuador (Haggard and Kaufmann, 1995). The social and professional involvement of university unions is now much more significant, and their role in the life of higher education institutions is becoming more and more imperative. Not only do they struggle for financial resources and real autonomy, but they also support the didactic and research activities of their members. They also try to prevent and stop the abuse of university leaders. This work aims to present the activity of the union of UniversitasTimisiensis (West University of Timisoara), the role it plays to increase the cohesion between its members and the cooperation with other university unions of Romania. We will also present some current and future solutions that can develop the competitiveness of our institution to make it more attractive not only for professors and researchers but also for students.

Methodology: In almost two decades we have observed that the role of education is treated differently in political declarations and public budgetary allocation. We tried to understand what the causes of these differences are, and we noticed that the formal voice of different union federations (there are four in the education field in Romania) is quite the same, but also there are some informal arrangements with governmental officials. Even in the higher education area, there are different aspects related to the goals of groups of universities (comprehensive, technical, medical) so the cohesion of different unions can be only apparent. We tried to investigate these aspects using quantitative research based on data supplied by Eurostat and National Institute of Statistics and about 15 interviews with different persons involved in the management of union organisations to see the characteristics of common patterns and also the specific differences.

Findings: We discovered that in the field of education there is a paradox of functionality of a system. All political parties sustain the idea of a consistent allocation of resources for education (there is a National Pact for Education signed by all parties in 2008 and assumed by all other parties that appeared after 2008), but in ten years the allocation was around 3% of GDP that represents only half of the agreement. The unions were forced to adopt different strategies in an unfriendly environment: they cooperated in most of the cases but, due to the lack of resources, they had to rally to the positions of the management of universities and that sometimes determined the dissent with other unions.

Value Added: It can be assumed that the unions can have an important role in education environment, even if they act in cohesion (most of the cases) and dissent (especially in case of improvement the position of the home university). The cohedissent (we try to underline the combination between the terms cohesion and dissent because it is almost impossible to have only cohesion in educational area) behaviour can represent a key factor to understanding the specificity of the role of university unions in improving the educational environment and insending more suggestive messages to the political parties.

Recommendations: The scientific research in universities is an essential aspect of higher education and the specific research within and between university unions can potentiate the activities of teachers and researchers. The cooperation between unions must be improved and the dissent must be used constructively.