The aim of the paper is to provide a conceptual theoretical framework of the integration of the theories and models of behavioural change in the marketing mix of the social marketing programs applied in public health. A second purpose is to highlight the benefits of social marketing over alternative techniques used in programs that are designed to influence health behaviour. The research is a conceptual one, that uses both theoretical (through examination of theories and concepts) and applied approaches (through examination of particular cases and examples). In the specialized literature there are presented multiple models/theories of behavioural change, but their specific application in the marketing mix of the social marketing programs is insufficiently described. The need to use these theories in the public health sector arises from the extended application of social marketing in this field and the specificity of the domain. Eight main theories of behaviour change were studied according to their purpose, variables (possibility of segmentation) and limits. Accordingly, the study presents how these theories can be integrated in the process of social marketing implementation in defining the marketing mix strategy. In this regard, it is important to underline the advantages of using social marketing (in contrast to alternative techniques like PRECEDE/PROCEED or the ecological models), namely: it is based on consumer orientation, uses marketing research, creates attractive exchanges, considers competition, uses the marketing mix, ensures management of the processes. In addition, some elements of the alternative techniques can be taken over in the application of social marketing. Social marketing is a very useful practical tool, but it needs a well-grounded theoretical support in order to gain ground in front of other similar theories. This paper tends to enhance the theoretical tools available for researchers and practitioners.
The main objective of this paper is to present a case of value interception as a result of restructuring the business model of a manufacturing company that operates in the agricultural machinery sector. A company that focuses on core activities in the value chain and commissions the manufacturing of most components to specialised suppliers – as a result of restructuring – becomes an integrator that controls all parts of the supply chain; from obtaining a raw material, through its own production of a possibly large number of components, to the distribution of a finished composite product. The framework of the conducted research featured the identification of the relationships occurring between own production of components comprising a given product, and an alternative solution, i.e. possibility of acquiring them by way of co-operation. The authors assumed that a derivative of the value intercepted in the finished product implementation process is the number of components manufactured using own production resources.
The main aim of this paper is to develop a model of key technical dynamic capabilities providing implementation flexibility of manufacturing companies of the Polish agricultural sector. Achieving the main target required to formulate sub-targets, to which the following have been included: the query of subject literature remaining in a direct relation to the topic of the research, which, in the authors’ intention, will find its expression in the developed definition of technical dynamic capabilities. At the design level, it is essential to search for the answer to the question: what technical capabilities imply dynamic flexibility of the Polish manufacturers of the agricultural machinery sector?, while, at the empirical level, to prioritize individual technical dynamic capabilities and determine what deficiencies in this area are characteristic for the studied companies.
The fundamental objective of this research paper is to determine whether contemporary management is recognized traditionally, in the light of a strategy and the entailing methods of operation, adapted to the target recipients, based on knowledge and studies, strongly embedded in the market reality or perhaps more as a paradigm, in which the focal point is the architecture of business processes, which comprises a description of their conceptualization, the determination of individual and necessary stages of operations and the modelling of these process, i.e., a business model. Opinion reconnaissance requires – in the first place – to develop a catalogue of features clearly identifying a business model and a strategy. The theoretical and design layers will utilize a method of reconstructing and interpreting the source literature supported by a discussion among purposively selected experts. This will be reflected by a set of key identifiers, which quantify a strategy and a business model subject to further assessment by the representatives of agricultural machinery companies. On the empirical level, it is important to determine, which of the suggested dimensions truly capture the sense of the concept in terms of practical operations of the enterprises invited to the study. It seems that the complexity of the problems and the so far limited scientific recognition justify treatment of the mentioned issues as the subject matter of the research.
Since many researchers and managers think about the essence, creation mechanisms and limits of the manufacturing model maturity, at this point, the author raises the question related to this issue: what dimensions (descriptions and desiderata) should be considered when conceptualizing this idea? The formulated question became a starting point and a point of conducting a creative synthesis, based, on the one hand, on a detailed analysis of the problem theory, and on the other hand – on the author’s own research. The above question and belief related to the existence of economic demand for results of application nature were the main inspiration to undertake research whose main purpose is to recognize: how the maturity of the business model is understood by selected experts operating in the Polish agricultural machinery sector?
The article presents an analysis of the awareness of the population about the kinds of contagious diseases to which it is exposed, as well as ways to prevent known and applied in everyday life. Presentation exposes results of a survey in the Dambovita county of Romania and tries to explain it by reference to information campaigns on contagious diseases. The empirical study reveals the main contagious diseases known and those less known by people, the favourite sources of information, the main measures of prevention known and applied by individuals. Finally some considerations are made regarding the future organization of information campaigns in this area.
This paper investigates the effect of peer smoking on individual smoking among youths in 10 countries that participated in the European Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS). I control for endogeneity in school selection and unobserved school-level characteristics through the use of school fixed-effects. I use instrumental variables to address the simultaneity in peer and individual behaviours. Identification arises by comparing students in different classes within the same school. On average, an increase in the share of classmates who smoke by 10 percentage points increases the probability that an individual in that class will smoke by 3 to 6.9 percentage points. The results imply that any policy intervention such as anti-smoking messages, smoking bans, or higher cigarette prices will be even more cost-effective because of the social multiplier effect of peers – policies affecting some individuals in a group will generate spillovers to others through the peer effect.
The study develops and examines the spatial distribution of the Corona Virus Disease (COVID) on mortality outcomes using a global panel dataset of 79 countries. The empirical evidence is based on Fixed Effect (FE) and System Generalized Method of Moment (SGMM) estimator. The predicted variable is proxy with daily mortality outcomes, while the predictor variable is proxy with spatial COVID spread while controlling for social tension and average temperature. The global and regional findings of the study established that spatial variation in COVID spread had positive and significant relationships with mortality outcomes. Further results also indicate that social tension is a contributing factor to the rising daily mortality outcome from the COVD outbreak, whereas temperature variation reduces mortality outcome. Thus, the study recommends the use of statistical modelling to predict and manage the epidemic. Also, there is an urgent demand to deploy essential social need to the vulnerable proportion of the population to reduce the level of social unrest, while strengthening collaborative research among scientists to develop, produce and distribute vaccines that will put an end to the pandemic.
This is a short paper analyzing the potential effects of a targeted school-building program on health indicators. The Kasturba Gandhi Balika Vidyalaya (KGBV) program in India intended to build residential schools for girls from historically disadvantaged sections of the society, providing a unique multifaceted policy setting with tenets of gender equality, affirmative action, and infrastructure reform in education. Exploiting the potentially exogenous cross-sectional variations generated by the institutional features of implementation of this intervention, I run triple-difference regressions to find that the program led to increases in body mass index (BMI) among the underweight. There seems to be a positive correlation between KGBV exposure and probability of being in the “healthy” band of BMI indicators.
Semi-supervised learning has become an important and thoroughly studied subdomain of machine learning in the past few years, because gathering large unlabeled data is almost costless, and the costly human labeling process can be minimized by semi-supervision. Label propagation is a transductive semi-supervised learning method that operates on the—most of the time undirected—data graph. It was introduced in  and since many variants were proposed. However, the base algorithm has two variants: the first variant presented in  and its slightly modified version used afterwards, e.g. in . This paper presents and compares the two algorithms—both theoretically and experimentally—and also tries to make a recommendation which variant to use.