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heaven and earth”: Urban-rural disparities in well-being in China’. Research in Social Stratification and Mobility, 30: 33-47. UNDP. (2010) Regional Report on Human Development. http://hdr.undp.org/en (accessed on 10 September 2012). Wu, X. and D. Treiman (2007) ‘Inequality and Equality under Chinese Socialism: The Hukou System and Intergenerational Occupational Mobility’. American Journal of Sociology, 113(2): 415-445. Yu, H. and X. Liu (2004) ‘Did the Effect of Work Unit on Intergenerational Mobility in Urban China Decline?’ Sociological Studies (in Chinese), 6

1 Introduction China’s transition from the planned economic regime to a liberal economic regime has marked a remarkable welfare improvement for Chinese people. One of the key features of this transition process is the gradual dismantling of traditional institutions. The transition is not complete yet because the traditional institutions that historically regulated the flow of capital and labor are still playing a significant role in the Chinese society ( Lardy, 1998 ; London, 2014 ). One such institution is the hukou or household registration system. Hukou

. Abingdon, Oxon; New York: Routledge, 2009 Brüsemeister, Thomas. Qualitative Forschung . Wiesbaden: Westdeutscher Verlag, 2000 Chan, Kam Wing, and Li Zhang. “The Hukou System and Rural-Urban Migration in China: Processes and Changes.” In China Quarterly , 160, 1999, pp. 818-855 Christiansen, Flemming. Chinatown, Europe. An Exploration of Overseas Chinese Identity in the 1990s. London; New York: Routledge Curzon, 2003 China Institute for Reform and Development (CIRD). Cèhuà tiānyá: Lìzú Hǎinán de zhuīqiú hé tànsuǒ 策划天涯:立足海南的追求和探索 [Planning the End of the World: Gain

bereits in den Jahren davor verschiedene Versuche gegeben hatte, die Zuwanderung in die Städte zu regeln und die städtischen Haushalte differenziert zu erfassen. Cheng, Tiejun; Seiden, Mark: The Origins and Social Consequences of China’s Hukou System. In: China Quarterly 139 (1994), S. 644–668; Chan, Kam Wing: Post-Mao China: A Two-Class Urban Society in the Making. In: International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, Vol. 20, No. 1 (1996), S. 134–150 Zahlreiche durch den Nationalen Volkskongreß verabschiedete Verordnungen hatten zunächst nur das generelle Ziel

1 Introduction Migrant workers account for as much as half of the total urban labor force in China. Yet, due to the hukou (household registration) system, they are granted limited or no access to the subsidized education and other social services available to local city residents. This results in many migrants leaving their children behind when migrating to cities for work. Indeed, more than one-fourth of all children in China aged 0–17 years—amounting to almost 70 million children—are estimated to be left behind by their migrant parents ( UNICEF, 2018 ). This