References Andersen, E. M. 2004. Intraspecific predation among Northwestern Crows. - The Wilson Bulletin 116(2): 180-181. DOI: 10.1676/03-113 Barnes, J. A. G. 1975. The Titmice of the British Isles. - David & Charles, Newton Abbot, pp. 212 Beckmann, C. 2008. An intraspecific killing in adult Pacific Reef Egrets (Egretta sacra). - The Wilson Journal of Ornithology 120(2): 422-424. DOI: 10.1676/07-097.1 Bichet, C., Scheifler, R., Coeurdassier, M., Juillard, R., Sorci, G. & Loiseau, C. 2013. Urbanization, trace metal pollution and malaria prevalence in the House
During a twenty five days trip in Uganda a brief faunistic survey of birds, mammals and reptiles was performed. Altogether 380 bird species were observed in six National Parks and some other protected areas in the summer of 2012. From these 64 bird species are discussed here selected according the following criteria: rarity, occurrence in a new habitat or geographic area, and emergence of novel breeding phenological data of certain species. Our new records of House Sparrow (Passer domesticus) along the Kazinga Channel (between Lake Edward and Lake George) are outside the current distribution range of the species. The House sparrow expanded its area about 800 km toward west from their first record in Nairobi in 1992. Our new records on White-tailed Ant-thrush (Neocossyphus poensis), Red-tailed Ant-thrush (Neocossyphus rufus), Papyrus Yellow Warbler (Chloropeta gracilirostris), Shelley’s Rufous Sparrow (Passer shelley) and Streaky Seedeater (Serinus striolatus) also require the correction of distribution maps of this species in Uganda. In addition we give some remarks on the breeding phenology of Mountain Wagtail (Motacilla clara), Cassin’s Grey Flycatcher (Muscicapa cassini) and Northern Red Bishop (Euplectes franciscanus). Our recent observational data of African Skimmer (Rynchops flavirostris) may have importance for the Bonn Convention. These observations might be important from conservation and ecotouristic point of views
The distribution of breeding birds in the Küçük Menderes Delta in western Turkey
Between 3 and 18 May, 2008, the status and distribution of breeding birds in Küçük Menderes Delta on the coast of the Aegean Sea in western Turkey was investigated. The 49 km2 large study area was divided into 49 1 × 1 km UTM squares. In all squares, 2-3 point counts, i.e. a total of 139 counts, were conducted. From a total of 54 bird species for which breeding evidence was obtained, 19 species (35%) were classified as possible breeding and 23 (43%) as probably breeding birds, while for 12 species (22%) breeding was confirmed. The current distribution of all breeding species is presented in maps. Crested Lark Galerida cristata, Cetti's Warbler Cettia cetti, House Sparrow Passer domesticus and Olivaceous Warbler Hippolais pallida were found in > 50% of all squares. More than 10 breeding species were found in squares containing different aquatic and seasonally flooded habitats along the shore-line of the Aegean Sea and in the surroundings of brackish and freshwater lakes, while in many squares, which contain large portions of agriculturally used land and salt mud-flats, less than 10 breeding species were recorded. Low numbers of breeding waterbirds in the Delta are attributed to the burning of reedbeds during the nesting season and human disturbances, like recreation activities and illegal bird shooting.
There is a lack of data on the population densities of birds breeding in a mosaic of typical urbanized habitats. This study was undertaken to partly fulfil this gap in our knowledge. Counts were conducted in 2008 by means of simplified territory mapping method in a fragment (1197 ha) of a large Central European city (Wrocław, SW Poland). In total, 50 bird species were breeding in the study area in 2008. The House Sparrow Passer domesticus, Common Swift Apus apus and Rock Dove comprised about 3/5 of all breeding pairs. The other group of species, each one with a density between 6 and 13 pairs per 100 ha, included seven species, namely the Starling, Sturnus vulgaris, Greenfinch, Carduelis chloris, House Martin, Delichon urbica, Tree Sparrow, Passer montanus, Great Tit, Parus major, Blue Tit, Parus caeruleus, and Jackdaw, Corvus monedula. They comprised together about 1/5. The remaining 40 species nested in a density between 0.1 and 3.5 pairs per 100 ha. The most numerous feeding guild were granivores (53.8%) and insectivores (37.9 %). Birds nesting on buildings comprised together 74 % of all breeding pairs. For a few species (Luscinia megarhynchos, Saxicola torquata, Corvus cornix and Turdus pilaris) an increase in their numbers in the last three decades has been evidenced.
To study the effects domestic cats may have on surrounding wildlife, a complete list was made of 558 items caught in the garden or brought into the house by one cat over 17 years, from 1988 to 2005. The effect on prey populations was assessed by comparing their abundance with the previous 15 years’ population without a cat. On balance, this cat (Cat 1) was clearly beneficial to the native bird species by killing rodents and deterring mustelids. The diet of a second cat (Cat 2) was recorded in the same way from 2006 to 2016. This cat caught half the number of items 148:287, but in the same proportions: house mice (37.8:42.6); ship rats (12.8:12.1); European rabbits (all young) (8.1:6.7); weasels (0.7:0.4); dunnock (12.8:9.2); house sparrow (2.0:3.1); blackbird (2.7:2.5); song thrush (1.4:1.3); European greenfinch (0.7:5.8); chaffinch (0.7:3.3); silvereye (10.1:8.3); New Zealand fantail (2.0:1.0); lizards (8.1:1.7). Despite this, there were significant differences: Cat 2 avoided finches (2:28, P = 0.004), and took a few more lizards (12:5). For both cats, birds apparently formed about a third of their diet: 33.4% and 34.5%, but comparison of the proportion of birds and rodents brought into the house (12:92) and found dead away from the house (49:45) implies that 320 rodent kills may have been missed, being far more difficult to find. As top predators, these cats were clearly beneficial to native birds, and proposed control or elimination may precipitate mesopredator release and a rabbit problem.
Between 2005 and 2015 I undertook eight trips to Jordan during which I collected pellets from seven owl species. In them 14,203 food items were identified. Mammals (Mammalia, 46 species, 37.9% of prey items) formed the most numerous component, invertebrates (Evertebrata) made up 33.4%, birds (Aves, 25.4%) were represented with at least 104 species, reptiles (Reptilia) came to 3.2%, and two species of amphibian were identified (Amphibia, 0.2%). Pharoah eagle owls (Bubo ascalaphus) and Byzantine eagle owls (Bubo bubo interpositus) primarily hunt larger mammals and birds, although Agamidae and Scorpiones were also represented more frequently among B. ascalaphus. Mammals predominated among tawny owls (Strix aluco wilkonskii) (Mammalia, 58.9%), mainly the eastern rock mouse (Apodemus mystacinus) (24.9%). For wintering long-eared owls Asio otus otus the most important food was small birds (Aves, 78.3%), especially house sparrows (Passer domesticus), Fringillidae and Sylviidae. For barn owls (Tyto alba erlangeri) the principal prey was small mammals (83.1%), mainly mice (Mus sp.), Günther’s vole (Microtus guentheri), grey hamster (Cricetulus migratorius) and shrews (Soricidae). Hume’s tawny owl (Strix butleri) pellets contained mostly invertebrates (58.9%) and lizards, and their most frequent mammal prey were Wagner’s gerbil (Gerbillus dasyurus) and spiny mice (Acomys sp.). There was an even higher propostion of invertebrates (86.4%) among lilith owlets (Athene lilith). In addition to the insect orders Coleoptera, Orthoptera and Hymenoptera, remains of Scorpiones and Solifugae were also frequently found. The summarized results from individual owl species are compared with those gathered by the author in the surrounding Middle Eastern countries: Israel, Syria, Lebanon and Egypt.
We completed data on the diet of the barn owl (Tyto alba) predominately from pellets for the period of the last 50 years from Slovakia. We analyzed material from 251 locations and 16 territorial units. The aggregate represents 119,231 pieces of prey from 47 species of mammals (Mammalia, 95.7%) and 58 species of birds (Aves, 3.9%), with a small representation of amphibians, reptiles (Amphibia and Reptilia, 0.2%) and invertebrates (Invertebrata, 0.2%). The obtaining of food among the owls is limited to synanthropic environments and the surrounding agricultural landscape, and the centre of its distribution in the recent period (i.e. the past 50 years: 1965-201 5) has been concentrated mainly on the southern parts of Slovakia. In this environment the common vole (Microtus arvalis, 59.6%) is the primary prey. Additional prey are rodents of the family Muridae: Mus musculus (5.6%), Micromys minutus (2.2%), Apodemus microps (2.2%), A. flavicollis (2.0%), A. sylvaticus (1 .6%) and A. agrarius (1 .5%); insectivores of the family Soricidae: Sorex araneus (6.2%), S. minutus (2.4%), Crocidura leucodon (4.8%) and C. suaveolens (2.8%); and the house sparrow Passer domesticus (2.9%). In the higher situated Turcianska kotlina Basin the species M. arvalis (74.3%) has higher domination, and instead of the white-toothed shrews the water shrews Neomys anomalus (2.8%) and N. fodiens (1 .3%) are more abundantly represented. In 3 localities owls focused on hunting bats; for example, in the church in Ratková the order Chiroptera made up 35.2% of prey. From the subrecent period (i.e. from before more than 50 years ago) we evaluate 4 samples from the territory of Slovakia with 15,601 pieces of prey ofT. alba. Before more than 50 years ago owls were also more abundantly represented at higher elevations in Slovakia, evidence of which is Weisz’s collection of pellets from 1 6 localities in the Ondavská vrchovina Upland in the years 1945 to 1963, but also a registry of data from the 19th and 20th centuries from higher located basins. In 4 samples of food from the subrecent period diversity in the representation of owl prey is higher, accompanied by low domination ofM. arvalis and a more abundant representation of murids from the genera Mus and Apodemus. The oldest sample, dated to the 16th century, is from a church in Žilina-Rudiny
levels. Appl. Anim. Behav. Sci., 82: 29-44. Møller A.P. (1990). Fluctuating asymmetry in male sexual ornaments may reliably reveal male quality. Anim. Behav., 40: 1185-1187. Møller A.P. (1994). Directional selection on directional asymmetry: testes size and secondary sexual characters in birds. Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B, 258: 147-151. Møller A.P., Erritzoe J. (1988). Badge, body and testes size in HouseSparrows Passer domesticus. Ornis Scand., 19: 72-73. Møller A.P., Pomiankowski A. (1993). Why have birds got multiple sexual ornaments. Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol., 32: 167
-spined Sticklebacks that differ in predation pressure. - Journal of Comparative Physiology B-Biochemical Systemic and Environmental Physiology 180: 211-220. doi: 10.1007/s00360-009-0395-8 Bókony, V., Seress, G., Nagy, S., Lendvai, A. Z. & Liker, A. 2012. Multiple indices of body condition reveal no negative effect of urbanization in adult housesparrows. - Landscape and Urban Planning 104: 75-84. doi: 10.1016/j.landurbplan.2011.10.006 Brodie, E. D. 1978. Biting and vocalization as antipredator mechanisms in terrestrial salamanders. - Copeia 1: 127-129. Buchanan, K. L. 2000. Stress
. Parasitol. , 98, 1148—1155. 7. Dharejo, A. M., Bilqees, F. M., Khan, M. M., 2007: Echinochasmus mohiuddini , new species (Trematoda: Echinostomatidae) from Paddy Bird Ardeolagrayii (Ardeidae) of Hyderabad, Sindh, Pakistan. Proc. Parasitol. , 39, 285—288. 8. Dharejo, A. M., Birmani, N. A., Khan, M. M., 2010: Echinochsmus passeri , new species (Digenea: Echinostomatidae) from gallbladder of HouseSparrow, Passer domesticus (Aves: Passeridae) of Hyderabad, Sindh, Pakistan. Proc. Parasitol. , 50, 139—145. 9. Dimitrov, V., Kanev, I., Bezprozvanich, V., Radev, V., 1998