The article presents an attempt to reconstruct the original site topographies of 13th-century Teutonic castles at Unisław and Starogród, which have not been preserved in the surface terrain. The archaeological remains of both castles are located in the west of Chełmno Land, on the edge of a moraine plateau 30 to 50 metres above the floor of the Vistula valley. The reconstruction used a research approach known as Historical GIS (HGIS), which, besides archaeological data, employs digitised historical cartographic sources. The research showed that changes in the original site topography are associated with anthropogenic transformations in the plateau surface, mainly due to agricultural use, and with retreat of the plateau edge resulting from natural and man-made landslide processes. The authors believe that the reconstruction of the castles’ original site topographies could be used to verify detailed hypotheses related to the conditions of their construction and operation.
, T & Mikiewicz, D 2012, ‘Towards historicalGIS platform in Poland’, Service- Oriented Mapping 2012, ed M Jobst, Jobst Media, Vienna pp. 417-430. Gregory, I 2005, A place in history: A guide to using GIS in historical research, Queen’s University, Belfast. Gregory, I & Healey, R 2007, ‘HistoricalGIS: structuring, mapping and analyzing geographies of the past’, Progress in Human Geography, vol. 31, no. 5, pp. 638-653. Gregory, I & Southall, H 2000, The Great Britain HistoricalGIS. Available from: <http://www.gbhgis.org>. [13 November 2013]. Cartoninjas 2013
(Eurocores) and the
project within it, “Water, Road and Rail: The Development of European Waterways, Road and Rail
Infrastructures: A Geographical Information System for the History of European Integration (1825-
2005),” directed by Jordi Martí Henneberg, Inventing Europe grant FP-005.
historicalGIS, text mining, railways, sea fishing, dairy farming
The introduction and expansion of rapid rail transportation in Great Britain
helped transform sea fishing and make fresh fish a new commodity of mass
consumption. In agriculture the rail network greatly facilitated the
Steyaert, Environmental Modeling with GIS, Nowy Jork, Oxford University Press, pp. 94–103. Govedarica, M & Borisov, M 2011, ‘The analysis of data quality on topographic maps’, Geodetski vestnik , vol. 55, no. 4, pp. 713–725. Gregory, IN & Healey, RG 2007, ‘HistoricalGIS: structuring, mapping and analysing geographies of the past’, Progress in Human Geography , vol. 31, no. 5, pp. 638–653. Hooke, J & Perry, RA 1976, ‘The Planimetric Accuracy of Tithe Maps’, The Cartographic Journal , vol. 13, no. 2, pp. 177–183. Jenny, B & Hurni, L 2011, ‘Studying cartographic
, HistoricalGIS. Technologies, methodologies and scholarship . Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Janeczek A., 2013, Staropolski układ komunikacyjny na mapie józefińskiej Galicji z lat 1779–1783. Szansa czy iluzja rekonstrukcji . In: Galicyjskie drogi i bezdroża. Studium infrastruktury, organizacji i kultury podróżowania . Ed. J. Kamińska-Kwak. Rzeszów: Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Rzeszowskiego, pp. 9–24. Karsvall O., 2013, Retrogressiv metod. En översikt med exempel från historisk geografi och agrarhistoria . “Historisk Tidskrift” Vol. 133, no. 3, pp. 411
The use of cartographic sources and methods are the basic tools of historical geography. One of the main research trends in this field is the analysis of the spatial layout and number of old settlement units. The confrontation of maps with historical data allows the drawing of a town’s area at a certain time to be studied. The retrogression (R) and progression (P) methods that are currently used are imperfect and the model created (map) is usually incomplete and its reliability is limited. In the author’s opinion, the joining of retrogression and progression (a new method; combined – K)1 increases the quality of cartographic reconstruction of natural and cultural landscapes. The use of basic mathematical methods from the scope of set operations means the component reliability of the researched cartographic model can be varied because the common part of the retrogression and progression cartographic model represents mutual verification of source data. Quantitative effectiveness assessments of retrogression (R), progression (P) and the combined method (K) can be made for countable elements (e.g. buildings). As part of the conducted study, the effectiveness of separate methods was calculated: R = 76% for retrogression, P = 59% for progression and K = R ∪ P = 85% for the combined method. The mutual verification of the methods (R ∩ P) included 45% of residential buildings. The author describes the proposition of a new method and the course of verification research.
The subject of the article is reconstructing the routes of postal roads within the borders of the Lublin Voivodeship in the second half of the 18th century. The author has attempted to reconstruct the routes of postal roads, using the retrogression method and a cartographic research method with the use of GIS tools. For this purpose, manuscript cartographic and descriptive sources from the late 18th and 19th centuries were used. Cartographic material from the end of the 18th century in connection with descriptive sources constituted the basis for determining the existence of a postal connection. However, maps from the beginning of the 19th century constituted the basis for the reconstruction of the routes of postal roads. The obtained results allowed for the determination of the role of the Lublin Voivodeship in the old Polish communication system. The research has made us aware of the need for further in-depth work on communication in the pre--partition era (before 1795).
The aim of the author of this article is to present cartographic visualizations designed for an international tourist project Shtetl Routes. The methodology consists of the study of early topographic maps, field studies, GIS analyses and 3D modelling. 63 town maps, 15 virtual mock-ups and a large thematic map have been developed as results. Multiple methodological problems are discussed. Cartographic products designed for the project have already been published or will be published in the near future.
The paper presents analysis results concerning changes in the range of areas of surface and transitional retention, here corresponding with wetlands, in two small lake catchments in the western part of West Polesie. The cartometric research was performed on maps covering the period from the 19th to the early 21st century. The analyses were referred to the modern state of investigation recorded on orthophotomaps in data bases disclosed in Geoportal Krajowy and in the Google Earth Pro application. Lake surface retention showed no substantial changes, and the differences result from the scale of maps used in the study, and therefore from the degree of detail of the presented objects. In the catchment of Lake Czarne Gościnieckie it occupied from 13.61 to 15.64% of its area, and in the catchment of Lake Brzeziczno from 0.96 to 1.28%. The greatest discrepancies in the area of wetlands result from the cartographic method of presentation, and generalisation of maps. In the catchment of Lake Czarne Gościnieckie, areas of transitional retention could be identified on 11 out of 13 maps, and in the catchment of Lake Brzeziczno on 12. In the case of the former catchment, transitional retention occupies from 17.35 to 34.00% of its area, and in the catchment of Brzeziczno from 4.81 to 24.00%. Such different surface areas of wetlands measured on maps, however, do not signify evident tendencies for change. Over the last 200 years, no substantial changes occurred in the studied catchments regarding the range of surface waters and wetlands, as confirmed by field research conducted in the years 2006-2012. The quantity and quality of maps and the variability of their scales encourage a careful interpretation of obtained information. In such a case, it is necessary to supplement cartographic analyses with investigating procedures of map preparation, and also to collect written documents concerning the entire area.
During the interwar period, an estimated 32–36% of Polish territory was covered by the Polish Military Geographical Institute’s (Pol. Wojskowy Instytut Geograficzny) 1:25,000 detailed map. At the same time, the MGI achieved a full coverage of the country by 1:100,000 tactical map. 50% of tactical map sheets were revised for the 1930s – many covered areas for which no detailed maps had been printed. Considering the fact that 1:100,000 tactical map was updated on the basis of revised 1:25,000 maps, another 17–21% of 1:25,000 detailed map sheets were finished or in progress by the German and Soviet invasion in 1939. The study confirmed additional 4% of 1:25,000 detailed map sheets as ‘partially compiled’ by the MGI and finished by the Germans. Another 17% of detailed map sheets are potentially to be found. Hypotheses, clues and evidence are presented in the paper.