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References Burton G. W., Devane E. H. 1953. Estimating the heritability in tall ( Festula arundicocea ) from replicated clonal material. Agronomy Journal 45: 478-481. Chadha K. L. 2009. Handbook of horticulture. Indian Council of Agricultural Research, Pusa, New Delhi. Falconer D. S. 1981. Introduction to quantitative Genetics Second Edition. Longman Group Ltd., Longman House, Burnt Mills, Harrow, Essese England. Gomez K. A., Gomez A. A. 1983. Statistical procedures for Agricultural Research. John Wiley & Sons, New York. Johnson H. W., Robinson H. F., Comstock R

References Arnold RJ and E Cuevad (2003) Genetic variation in early growth, stem straightness and survival in A. crassicarpa, A. mangium and Eucalyptus urophylla in Nukindon Province, Philippines. Journal of Tropical Forest Sciences 15 (2): 332-351. Awang K, NA Shukor and AL Senin (1995) Two-year performance of Acacia crassicarpa provenances at Serdang, Malaysia. Pertanika J. Trop. Agric. Sci. 18(3): 177-181. Holland BJ, WE Nyquist and CT Cervantes-Martinez (2003) Estimating and interpreting heritability for plant breeding [online] pp. 9-112. In: J Janick (ed

References Danusevičius, J. 2002. Breeding of Pines. (Pušies selekcija). Monograph. Kaunas. 352 pp. (In Lithuanian with English summary). Diebel, K. E., Geyer, W. A., Lunch, K. D. 1992. Heritability and expected gain estimates for traits of Scots Pine christmas tree seed sources. - Western Journal Applied Forestry, 7(3), 82-86. Eriksson, G., Ekberg, I. 2001. An Introduction to Forest Genetics. Uppsala. 166 pp. Eriksson, G., Ryttman, H. 1986. Quality and volume in a 30-year-old provennce trial of Scots pine in southern Lapland. (Kvalitet och volum i ett 30

. A. K. (1985): Heritability of juvenile characters of white spruce (Picea glauca (Moench) Voss) in central Newfoundland, Canada. Theor. Appl. Genet. 69: 247-251. KREMER, A. (1992): Prediction of age-age correlation of total height based on serial correlations between height increments in maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Ait.). Theor. Appl. Genet. 85: 152-158. LEHN, G. A. and K. O. HIGGINBOTHAM (1982): Natural variation in merchantable stem biomass and volume among clones of Populus tremuloides Michx. Can. J. For. Res. 12: 83-89. LI, B., S. E. MCKEAND and H. L. ALLEN

properties. Lic. Thesis, Dept. of Silviculture, Swedish Univ. Agric. Sci., Report 50 : 18 p. L oo , J. A., C. G. T auer and J. P. van B uijtenen (1984): Juvenile-mature relationships and heritability estimates of several traits in loblolly pine ( Pinus taeda ). Can. J. For. Res. 14 : 822–825. L oo , J. A., C. G. T auer and R. W. M c N ew (1985): Genetic variation in the time of transition from juvenile to mature wood in Loblolly pine ( Pinus taeda L.). Silvae Genet. 34 : 14–19. L ouzada , J. L., P. C. and F. M. A. F onseca (2002): The heritability of wood

References A lika , J. E. (1985): Heritability and genotypic gain from selection in rubber ( Hevea brasiliensis ). Silvae Genet. 34 : 1–4. A lika , J. E. and O. U. O nokpise (1982): Estimation of heritability parameter for yield, girth and bark thickness in rubber ( Hevea brasiliensis ) from a single pair mating (S.P.M.) design. J. Plant. Crops 10 : 102–108. A rnon , D. I. (1949): Copper enzymes in isolated chloroplasts and polyphenol oxidase in Beta vulgaris . Plant Physiol. 24 : 1. B urton , G. W. and E. H. de V ane (1953): Estimating heritability in

Journal of Forest Research 34 : 2601–2610. K umar , S., R. D. B urdon and G. T. S tovold (2008): Wood properties and stem diameter of Pinus radiata in New Zealand: genetic parameter estimates of clonal and seedling material. New Zealand Journal of Forestry Science 38(1) : 88–101. K umar , S., K. J. S. J ayawickrama , J. L ee and M. L ausberg (2002): Direct and indirect measures of stiffness and strength show high heritability in a wind-pollinated radiata pine progeny test in New Zealand. Silvae Genetica 51 : 256–261. K umar , S., H. S. D ungey and A. C. M

Abstract

In this paper, we present the results and analyse of tree height measurements, phenological observations (bud flushing), oak powdery mildew symptoms and multiple shoots of pedunculate oaks Quercus robur L. at the age of 12 years. The examined oaks belonged to 29 open pollination families. Family as well as individual heritability scored very highly for their respective indices. The calculated indices were 0.83 for tree height, 0.98 for flushing of buds, 0.53 for oak powdery mildew symptoms and 0.58 for the multi-stem index. Family seed orchards established using a completely randomized design are not a reliable substitute for progeny testing, because of the commonly small number of collected families.

Abstract

The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the genetic variability and heritability of some morphological and physiological traits in Fagus orientalis Lipsky along an elevation gradient in northern forests of Iran. Beech leaves were sampled from southern and northern crown parts of healthy mature trees along an elevation gradient comprising sites situated at 700 m, 1,200 m and 1,700 m above the sea level. Our statistical analysis showed that the investigated traits differed significantly between the populations. The results indicated the lowest and the highest coefficients of variation for the high (1,700 m) and middle elevation populations (1,200 m) for leaf length, petiole length, leaf area, specific leaf area, dry weight, specific dry weight, leaf index and petiole index traits. With increasing elevation, mean leaf width, distance from leaf base to the leaf maximum width, dry weight and petiole index increased. The plasticity of leaf length, specific leaf area, specific dry weight, petiole index and petiole length peaked at middle elevation, and with increasing elevation, the plasticity of these traits declined. The distance from leaf base to the leaf maximum width had the highest coefficient of genetic (75.5%) and phenotypic (75.5%) variation. The heritability results showed that there were differences in all traits, and that the highest heritability was recorded for the distance from the leaf base to the leaf maximum width (99.95 %). The results suggest that the studied beech populations responded to the environmental changes by changing their leaf traits in different ways at different altitudes.

, P. ROZENBERG, L. WILHELMSSON and R. WIMMER (2004): Genetic parameters of growth and wood quality traits in Picea abies. Scan J For Res 19: 14-29. HARSHAP, R. M. S. and I. SOERIANEGARA (1977): Heritability of some characters in teak (Tectona grandis L.f.), pp. 649-657. In: Third World Consultation on Forest Tree Breeding, Volume 2. CSIRO, Canberra, Australia. HERNÁNDEZ, R. E. and G. RESTREPO (1995): Natural variation in wood properties of Alnus acuminata HBK grown in Colombia. Wood Fiber Sci 27: 41-48. HODGE, G. R., W. S. DVORAK, H. URUEÑA and L. ROSALES (2002