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Jun Cheng, Min Quan, Min Li, Shun-ai Liu and Qi Wang
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Globally, hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a major health problem with variable geographical distribution. The rates of chronic hepatitis B virus (CHB) infection vary from 0.1%–20% in different areas of the world; and are 0.1%–2% in areas of low prevalence. In areas of intermediate prevalence, e.g., Mediterranean countries, Eastern Europe, the Indian subcontinent, and Singapore the prevalence is 3%–5%. Pakistan falls into the intermediate zone [ 1 , 2 , 3 ]. The reported prevalence of HBV surface antigen (HBsAg) in the general population of Pakistan is 2
R. L. Craciun, Angelica Nela Stavar and Madalina Iliescu
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Ali Rafiq, Saba Fatima, Beenish Masood, Rizwan Ahmed Khan, Fareeha Ahmed Khan, Aimen Liaquat, Aelia Fatima, Mohammad Shahrukh Tanveer, Mahreen Sulaiman, Syed Yousuf Hasan, Mariam Aehtesham and Sidra Khan
Hepatitis is characterized by inflammation of the liver. A group of viruses called the hepatitis viruses (A–E) cause most of the cases worldwide. Of these, hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) have become a serious problem for public health, and are a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide.
Serological studies indicate that more than 2 billion people have been infected with HBV worldwide [ 1 ]. This includes 350 million chronic carriers of the virus [ 2 ]. Pakistan is highly endemic with HBV [ 3 ] with 9 million people infected with
Radka T. Komitova, Maria V. Atanasova, Toska A. Pavlova, Monica Sh. Nyagolov and Aneta V. Ivanova
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Yasir Waheed, Umar Saeed, Sher Zaman Safi, Waqas Nasir Chaudhry and Ishtiaq Qadri
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