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Viral hepatitis in hemodialysis: An update

References 1. Karkar A, Abdelrahman M, Ghacha R, Malik TQ. Prevention of Viral Transmission in HD Units: The value of isolation. Saudi J Kidney Dis Transpl 2006;17:183-8. 2. Fabrizi F, Marcelli D, Bacchini G, Guarnori I, Erba G, Locatelli F. Antibodies to hepatitis C virus (HCV) in chronic renal failure (CRF) patients on conservative therapy: Prevalence, risk factors and relationship to liver disease. Nephrol Dial Transplant 1994;9:780-4. 3. Fabrizi F, Raffaele L, Bacchini G, Guarnori I, Pontoriero G, Erba G, et

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Advances in Studies on Hepatitis E Virus

References 1 GENG YS, ZHAO CY, FAN JP, et al . Genotype analysis of hepatitis E virus from sporadic hepatitis E cases in northern China. Infect Genet Evol, 2013, 20:413-417. 2 REN H, LIYT, ZHOU X, et al . Epidemiologic and genetic characteristics of hepatitis E virus in Shanghai, 1997-2012. Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi, 2013,34 (5):419-423. 3 Kamar N, Dalton HR, Abravanel F, et al . Hepatitis E virus infection. Clin Microbiol Rev. 2014 Jan;27 (1):116-138. 4 Miao Ning, Zhang Guomin, Gong Xiaohong, et al . The Epidemiological

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Quasispecies of Hepatitis B Virus

References 1 Jazayeri SM, Alavian SM, Carman WF. Hepatitis B virus: origin and evolution. J Viral Hepat 2010;17:229-235. 2 Yim HJ. Hepatitis B virus genetic diversity and mutant. Korean J Hepatol 2008;14:446-464. 3 Sheldon J, Rodès B, Zoulim F, Bartholomeusz A, Soriano V. Mutations affecting the replication capacity of the hepatitis B virus. J Viral Hepat 2006;13:427-434. 4 Bartholomeusz A, Locarnini S. Hepatitis B virus mutations associated with antiviral therapy. J Med Virol 2006;78 Suppl 1:S52

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Frequency of hepatitis B envelope antigen-negative chronic hepatitis B virus infection in untreated patients from three cities in Pakistan

Globally, hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a major health problem with variable geographical distribution. The rates of chronic hepatitis B virus (CHB) infection vary from 0.1%–20% in different areas of the world; and are 0.1%–2% in areas of low prevalence. In areas of intermediate prevalence, e.g., Mediterranean countries, Eastern Europe, the Indian subcontinent, and Singapore the prevalence is 3%–5%. Pakistan falls into the intermediate zone [ 1 , 2 , 3 ]. The reported prevalence of HBV surface antigen (HBsAg) in the general population of Pakistan is 2

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Drug Hepatitis At AINS

References 1. Fernández-Villar, A., Sopeña, B., Vázquez, R., Ulloa, F., Fluiters, E., Mosteiro, M., César, M.- V. & Piñeiro, L. (2003). Isoniazid Hepatotoxicity among Drug Users: The Role of Hepatitis C. Clinical Infectious Diseases. 36(3), 293-298. doi: 10.1086/345906. 2. Gronhagen-Riska, C., Hellstrom, P.E. & Froseth, B. (1978). Predisposing factors in hepatitis induced by isoniazid-rifampin treatment of tuberculosis. Am Rev Respir Dis. 118(3), 461-466. doi: 10.1164/arrd.1978.118.3.461 3. Huang, Y.S., Chern

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Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease and Hepatitis C

diagnosis, management and treatment of chronic hepatitis C, 2015. 5. Mohd Hanafiah K, Groeger J, Flaxman AD, et al. Global epidemiology of hepatitis C virus infection: new estimates of age-specific antibody to HCV seroprevalence. Hepatology 2013;57:1333-42. 6. Wasley A, Alter MJ. Epidemiology of hepatitis C: geographic differences and temporal trends. Semin Liver Dis 2000;20(1):1-16. 7. Zignego AL, Ferri C, Pileri SA, et al. Extrahepatic manifestations of hepatitis C virus infection: a general overview and guidelines for a clinical approach. Dig Liver

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Awareness of hepatitis B and C among students of nonmedical universities in Karachi

Hepatitis is characterized by inflammation of the liver. A group of viruses called the hepatitis viruses (A–E) cause most of the cases worldwide. Of these, hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) have become a serious problem for public health, and are a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Serological studies indicate that more than 2 billion people have been infected with HBV worldwide [ 1 ]. This includes 350 million chronic carriers of the virus [ 2 ]. Pakistan is highly endemic with HBV [ 3 ] with 9 million people infected with

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Diagnostic Dilemmas in Hepatitis C Virus Infection for Hemodialysis Patients

References 1. Izopet J, Sandres-Sauné K, Kamar N, et al. Incidence of HCV infection in French hemodialysis units: a prospective study. J Med Virol 2005;77(1):70-6. 2. Hinrichsen H, Leimenstoll G, Stegen G, et al. Prevalence and risk factors of hepatitis C virus infection in haemodialysis patients: a multicentre study in 2796 patients. Gut 2002;51(3):429-33. 3. Jadoul M, Poignet JL, Geddes C, et al. The changing epidemiology of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in haemodialysis: European Multicentre Study

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Research advances in reactivation of hepatitis virus after chemotherapy for non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma-combined hepatitis B virus infection

References 1 Chinese Society of Hepatology of Chinese Medical Association, Chinese Society of Infectious Diseases of Chinese Medical Association. The Guideline of Prevention and Treatment for Chronic Hepatitis B. Chinese Journal of Internal Medicine, 2006, 45(2):162-170. 2 Chen Y, Xie Q, Shen Z. Reactivation of HBV Related to Treatment of Malignant Lymphoma. Journal of Internal Medicine Concepts & Practice, 2007, 2(1):8-12. 3 Zheng R, Qin F, Zhai Y, et al . HBV Infection and Chemotherapy of Non-Hodgkin’s Lymphoma. The Practical Journal of

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Awareness and risk factors associated with barbers in transmission of hepatitis B and C from Pakistani population: barber’s role in viral transmission

References 1. WHO Int. Hepatitis B, WHO Department of communicable diseases surveillance and response Available via: http://whqlibdoc.who.int/hq/2002/WHO_CDS_CSR_LYO_2002.2_HEPATITIS_B.pdf. Accessed 23 July 2009. 2. WHO Int. World Health Organization fact sheet, hepatitis B. Available via: www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs204/en/. Accessed 23 July 2009. 3. WHOpak.org. Pakistan country profile. Available via: www.whopak.org/pakprofile.htm. Accessed 23 July 2009. 4. Park K. Park textbook of

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