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Quasispecies of Hepatitis B Virus

References 1 Jazayeri SM, Alavian SM, Carman WF. Hepatitis B virus: origin and evolution. J Viral Hepat 2010;17:229-235. 2 Yim HJ. Hepatitis B virus genetic diversity and mutant. Korean J Hepatol 2008;14:446-464. 3 Sheldon J, Rodès B, Zoulim F, Bartholomeusz A, Soriano V. Mutations affecting the replication capacity of the hepatitis B virus. J Viral Hepat 2006;13:427-434. 4 Bartholomeusz A, Locarnini S. Hepatitis B virus mutations associated with antiviral therapy. J Med Virol 2006;78 Suppl 1:S52

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An Immunoabsorption Column Configuration for Hepatitis B Virus

-453. 7 Luo KX: Foundation and Clinic of HB, 2nd Edition, Beijing: People’s Medical Publishing House, 2001. 8 Lieberman HM, LaBrecque DR, Kew MC, Hadziyannis SJ, Shafritz DA. Detection of hepatitis B virus DNA directly in human serum by a simplified molecular hybridization test: comparison to HBeAg/anti-HBe status in HBsAg carriers. Hepatology 1983; 5(3):285-291. 9 Zhang DF. Immune and Clinic of HBV. Beijing: Sciences Academic Press, 1985.

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Advances in research on influencing factors of hepatitis B virus infection caused by blood transfusions

1 Introduction Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is one of the most serious problems that endanger human health. More than one-third of the population in the world were once infected with HBV, with >360 million translated into chronic infection [ 1 ]. Every year, approximately 62 million people die of fulminant hepatitis, cirrhosis, and liver cancer caused by HBV infection. A total of 4.5 million new infections have also been documented, with one-quarter developing into liver disease [ 2 ]. Blood transfusion is an important route of transmission for HBV

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Early Evolution of Hepatitis B Virus Quasispecies During IFN-α Treatment

References 1. Lavanchy D. Hepatitis B virus epidemiology, disease burden, treatment, and current and emerging prevention and control measures. J Viral Hepat 2004;11(2):97-107. 2. Domingo E, Holland JJ. RNA virus mutations and fitness for survival. Annu Rev Microbiol 1997;51:151-178. 3. Arataki K, Kumada H, Toyota K, Ohishi W, Takahashi S, Tazuma S, et al. Evolution of hepatitis C virus quasispecies during ribavirin and interferon-alpha-2b combination therapy and interferon-alpha-2b monotherapy. Intervirology

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Original Article. Hepatitis B Virus S Promoter Deletion in Hepatocellular Carcinoma

References 1 Lu FM, Zhuang H. Management of hepatitis B in China. Chin Med J 2009;122:3-4. 2 Liu CJ, Kao JH. Hepatitis B virus-related hepatocellular carcinoma: epidemiology and pathogenic role of viral factors. J Chin Med Assoc 2007;70: 141-145. 3 Chen CJ, Chen DS. Interaction of hepatitis B virus, chemical carcinogen, and genetic susceptibility: multistage hepatocarcinogenesis with multifactorial etiology. Hepatology 2002;36:1046-1049. 4 McGlynn KA, London WT. The global epidemiology of

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Immunomodulatory effects of Tim-3 and PD-1 on chronic hepatitis B virus infection

1 Introduction Chronic infection with the hepatitis B virus (HBV) is prevalent worldwide. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), approximately 2 billion people in the world have been infected with HBV, and 240 million of these patients have chronic HBV infection [ 1 ]. A total of 650,000 deaths occur annually from the complications caused by chronic HBV infection; these complications include liver failure, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma [ 2 ]. HBV is the pathogen of chronic hepatitis B (CHB) and affects the development of the disease by

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Inhibition of Hepatitis B Virus Replication and Expression in Vitro and in Vivo by the Hammerhead Ribozymes Targeted Different Sites

procedures for the selection delta ribozyme cleavage sites within the hepatitis B virus. Nucleic Acids Research 2002;30:4682-4691. 8 Butcher SE, and Burke JM. Structure-mapping of the hairpin ribozyme. Magnesium-dependent folding and evidence for tertiary interactions within the ribozyme-substrate complex. J. Mol. Biol 1994;244:52-63. 9 Li XJ, Kuang ES, Dai W, Zhou BP, Yang FH. Efficient inhibition of hepatitis B virus replication by hammerhead ribozymes delivered by hepatitis delta virus. Virus Research, 2005;114:126-132. 10

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Advances in Animal Models of Hepatitis B Virus Infection

References 1 Sa-Nguanmoo P, Rianthavorn P, Amornsawadwattana S, et al . Hepatitis B virus infection in non-human primates. Acta Virol, 2009, 53(2): 73-82. 2 Komiya Y, Katayama K, Yugi H, et al . Minimum infectious dose of hepatitis B virus in chimpanzees and difference in the dynamics of viremia between genotype A and genotype C. Transfusion, 2008, 48(2): 286-294. 3 Gagneux P, Muchmore EA. The chimpanzee model: contributions and considerations for studies of hepatitis B virus. Methods Mol Med, 2004, 96 (289-318. 4 Amako Y, Tsukiyama

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The rtA181 Mutation Produces Similar Clinical and Cellular Characteristics in Patients infected with Hepatitis B Virus Genotypes B and C

References 1. Dienstag JL. Hepatitis B virus infection. N Engl J Med 2008;359(14):1486-1500. 2. Yeh CT, Chien RN, Chu CM, Liaw YF. Clearance of the original hepatitis B virus YMDD-motif mutants with emergence of distinct lamivudine-resistant mutants during prolonged lamivudine therapy. Hepatology 2000;31(6):1318-1326. 3. Chien RN, Yeh CT, Wang PN, Kuo MC, Hsieh SY, Shih LY, et al. Acute leukaemia in chronic hepatitis B patients with lamivudine therapy. Int J Clin Pract 2004;58(11):1088-1091. 4

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Hepatitis B virus genotype E infection among Egyptian health care workers

. [9] Vaccination coverage of Egyptian HCWs is very low. [10] There is no clear policy that requires mandatory vaccination for HCWs in Egypt, as the price of the vaccine is high and the Ministry of Health and Populations cannot afford to vaccinate all staff. [10] The hepatitis B virus status is not routinely checked among Egyptian HCWs, and limited data are available about the HBV infection rate and genotypes. Here, our objective was to assess the HBV infection rate and genotypes among Egyptian HCWs. Methods Study population A cross-sectional study was

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