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The article* focuses on the dynamics of contemporary beliefs related to involuntary childlessness. Firstly, the methodological issues of collecting source material on delicate matters and the advantages of anonymous and narrative presentation modes in certain contexts will be discussed. Secondly, conclusions drawn from the collected material, i.e. the temporary and changeable nature of those beliefs, their relations with the mass media, the social and the individual aspects and the motifs of guilt and supernatural punishment in the context of identity issues will be presented, concluding that such belief-based models of explanation and help-seeking eventually function as a mental self-defence mechanism.


The aim of this study was to investigate parental perception of febrile illness in their children, the most commonly applied management practices, as well as the expectations from clinicians when coping with fever in children. The study included parents of patients admitted to the Emergency and Observation Department of Children’s Clinical University Hospital in Rīga, Latvia. Data were collected via semi-structured interviews. All interviews were transcribed, and the transcripts analysed by inductive thematic analysis. Thirty-four parental interviews were analysed. Six themes emerged from the study, which were: signs causing concern; beliefs regarding fever; assessment and monitoring of fever; fever management practices; help-seeking behaviour; and expectations from the healthcare personnel. Many parents believed that fever could potentially cause injuries to the nervous system, kidneys, the brain, other internal organs, and even cause death. The perceived threat of fever resulted in frequent temperature measurements and administration of antipyretics. Meeting the emotional and information needs of the parents were considered as equally important to meeting the child’s medical needs. The study found that fever phobia exists among parents. Parental misconceptions of fever lead to overly zealous management practices. Parental education initiatives must be organised in order to improve parental knowledge of fever and its management in children.

Media (pp. 75-84). Retrieved from Evans, E., Hawton, K., & Rodham, K. (2005). In what ways are adolescents who engage in self-harm or experience thoughts of self-harm different in terms of help-seeking, communication and coping strategies? Journal of Adolescence, 28 (4), 573-587. Fayard, A-L., & DeSanctis, G. (2005). Evolution of an online forum for knowledge management professionals: A language game analysis. Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication, 10 (4). Frost, M., & Casey, L. (2016). Who seeks help online for

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and drugs by elderly in Monterrey, Mexico. Rev Lat Am Emfermagem 2008; 16: 509-15. Brennan PL, Schutte KK, Moos RH. Reciprocal relations between stressors and drinking behaviour: a three-wave panel study of late middle-aged and older women and men. Addiction 1999; 94: 737-49. Brennan PL, Moss RH, Mertens JR. Personal and environmental risk factors as predictors of alcohol use, depression and treatment seeking: a longitudinal analysis of late-life problem drinkers. J Subst Abuse 1994; 6: 191-208. George AA, Tucker JA. Help seeking for alcohol-related problems: social

6 References Addis, Michael E. and James R. Mahalik. 2003. Men, Masculinity, and the Contexts of Help Seeking. American Psychologist 58(1): 5–14. Bambra, Clare, Daniel Pope, Viren Swami, Debbi Stanistreet, Albert J. Roskam, Anton Kunst, and Alex Scott-Samuel. 2009. Gender, Health Inequalities and Welfare State Regimes: A Cross-National Study of 13 European Countries. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health 63(1): 38–44. Barford, Anna, Danny Dorling, George Davey Smith, and Mary Shaw. 2006. Life Expectancy: Women Now on Top Everywhere. British Medical

disorders: A systematic review of the literature. Health Expectations . doi:10.1111/hex12251 Tucker, J. A., Foushee, H. R., & Simpson, C. A. (2009). Increasing the appeal and utilization of services for alcohol and drug problems: What consumers and their social networks prefer. International Journal of Drug Policy, 20 , 76–84. Tucker, J. A., Vuchinich, R. E., & Rippens, P. D. (2004). A factor analytic study of influences on patterns of help-seeking among treated and untreated alcohol dependent persons. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, 26 , 237–242. Wang, P. S

facilitators to mental health help-seeking for young elite athletes: a qualitative study. BMC Psychiatry, 2012a; 12: 157 Gulliver A, Griffiths KM, Christensen H, Mackinnon A, Calear AL, Parsons A, Bennett K, Batterham PJ, Stanimirovic R. Internet-based interventions to promote mental health help-seeking in elite athletes: an exploratory randomized controlled trial. J Med Internet Res, 2012b; 14: e69 Gulliver A, Griffiths KM, Mackinnon A, Batterham PJ, Stanimirovic R. The mental health of Australian elite athletes. J Sci Med Sport, 2015; 18: 255-261 Hawkins RD, Fuller CW. A

.2012;26(3), 357. 40. Fonseca A., Gorayeb R., Canavarro M. Women C.׳ help-seeking behaviours for depressive symptoms during the perinatal period: Socio-demographic and clinical correlates and perceived barriers to seeking professional help. Midwifery, 2015;31(12):1177-1185. 41. Dennis C. L., Chung Lee L. Postpartum depression help-seeking barriers and maternal treatment preferences: A qualitative systematic review. Birth, 2006; 33 (4):323-331. 42. Goodman J. H. Women’s attitudes, preferences, and perceived barriers to treatment for perinatal depression. Birth, 2009

: schizotypy and the schizotaxic self. Schizophr Bull, 2011; 37: 1017–1026. 46. Koren D., Reznik N., Adres M., Scheyer R., Apter A., Steinberg T., et al. Disturbances of basic self and prodromal symptoms among nonpsy-chotic help-seeking adolescents. Psychol Med, 2013; 43: 1365–76. 47. Raballo A., Pappagallo E., Dell’ Erba A., Lo Cascio N., Patane’ M., Gebhardt E., et al. Self-disorders and clinical high risk for psychosis: an empirical study in help-seeking youth attending Community mental health facilities. Schizophr Bull, 2016; 42: 926-32. 48. Nelson B., Thompson A., Yung