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ratios ( Neugschwandtner and Kaul, 2014 ). Harvest index (HI) is a genetically determined trait and also depends on environmental conditions and the adaptation of the given genotype. Different opinions exist regarding the impact of N fertilization strategy on HI ( Sticksel et al., 2000 ). Data in the literature show that the effect of N fertilizer on HI increases with N-fertilizer application until the optimum N supply is reached, after which it decreases. However, the optimum N dose required to achieve maximum HI is debatable. Nevertheless, there is broad agreement


In order to estimate the water requirement of barley and wheat by using of ET-HS model, a research was conducted at Research Farm of Islamic Azad University, Isfahan (Khorasgan) Branch, Iran. ET-HS model is used to determine irrigation water quantity and irrigation schedule for different crop. The study was based on randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three replications and six treatments. The irrigation treatments included irrigation to supply 50, 75, 100, 125 and 150% of crop water demand on the basis of ET-HS model during growing season and control treatment (conventional irrigation), which was irrigation on the basis of 70 mm evaporation from Class A evaporation pan during growing season. In barley experiment, the highest values for number of fertile tiller, maximum LAI, total dry matter in maximum LAI stage, number of grain per spike, a thousand seed weight (35.56 g), grain yield (7877.9 kg/ha), biological yield (17689.7 kg/ha) and harvest index (44.45%) was obtained for irrigation according to 100% of crop water demand on the basis of ET-HS model. In wheat experiment, the highest number of fertile spike, number of grain per spike, 1000 grain weight, grain yield, biological yield was obtained for irrigation treatment on the basis of 100% ET-HS model; moreover, the maximum harvest index was related to control treatment, followed by irrigation on the basis of 100% of ET-HS model. Conclusively, the appropriate irrigation treatment was 100% of crop water demand on the basis of ET-HS model during the growth season for both crops.

, 135, 217-225. Madic, M., Kuburovic, M.. Kraljevic-Balalic, M., Petrovic, S. (2002). Varability and variance for harvest index in winter barley. Acta Agr. Serbica, 14. 17-24. Marquez-Cedillo. L.A., Hayes, P. M., Kleinhofs, A., Legge, W. G., Rossnagel, B. G., Sato, K., Ullrich, S. E., Wesenberg, D. M. (2001). The North American Barley Genome Mapping project. Theor. Appl. Gen., 103, 625-637. del Moral, L. F. G., del Moral, M. B. G., Molina-Cano, J. L., Slafer, A. (2003). Yield stability in development in two-and six-rowed winterbarleys under Mediterranean conditions

. Lakra, “Performance of different wheat genotypes as influenced by dates of planting,” Journal of Pharmacognosy And Phytochemistry vol. 1 pp. 4–8, 2018. [20] G. K. McDonald, B. G. Sutton, and F. W. Ellison, “The effect of sowing date, irrigation and cultivar on the growth and yield of wheat in the Namoi River Valley, New South Wales,” Irrig. Sci. , vol. 5(2),123–135, Apr. 1984. [21] C. M. Donald, “In search of yield,” J. Aust. Inst. Agric. Sci. , vol. 28, 171–178, Dec. 1962. [22] R. C. Sharma and E. L. Smith, “effects of sowing dates on harvest index, grain yield


Normally the productivity of cropping systems in arid and semi- arid regions is very low. The sustainable agricultural systems try to find out environmental friendly technologies based on physical and biological treatments to increase crop production. In this study two irrigation treatments (control and water stress) and six methods of fertilizer treatment (control, NPK-F, using magnetic band- M, using silver nano particles- N, M+N and M+N+50% F) on performance of ajowan were compared. Results showed that treatments with magnetic field or base fertilizer had more yield compared to the control and silver nanoparticles (N) treatments. Application of silver nanoparticles had no positive effect on yield. The highest seed and biomass WUE achieved in base fertilizer or magnetic field treatments. Under water stress treatment, seed WUE significantly increased. In conclusion magnetic field exposure, probably by encourage nutrient uptake efficiency could be applied to reduce fertilizer requirement. On the other hand the cultivation of plants under low MF could be an alternative way of WUE improving.


The paper demonstrates the influence of different mineral fertilization with phosphorus and potassium on the concentration of copper (Cu) and manganese (Mn) in the ear leaf of maize at the stage of flowering (BBCH 65) as well as the contents and accumulation of the nutrients studied in maize when fully ripe (BBCH 89). A single factor experiment was carried out in 5-year-cycle (2007-2011), in the randomized complete block design. The experiment was conducted as a part of a long-term stationary trial. The investigation comprised 8 different P and K treatments: the absolute control, exclusive of one of the main nutrients (P - WPN or K - WKN), reduced amount of phosphorus and potassium (to 25% - W25 and to 50% WP50, WK50) as well as recommended amounts of basic nutrients (NPKMg - W100 and NP*KMg, P* - P* as PAPR - W100 PAPR). Evaluation of the nutriational status, performed in the ear leaf of maize at flowering stage, showed that regardless of fertilization treatment applied, the concentration of copper was lower than normative values, whereas that of manganese ranged within the optimal scope. At the same time, there was found a significant relationship between the grain yield obtained and acquisition of both copper and manganese by maize at flowering stage (stronger for manganese, r = 0.614). The total accumulation of copper and manganese in fully ripe maize was significantly differentiated as a result of mineral fertilization. The total uptake of Cu and Mn was reduced under the conditions of 10-year lack of P fertilization. Uptake reduction was considerably more advanced when K fertilization was absent for 10 years. Regardless of the experimental factor effects, more than 50% of the total copper uptake was accumulated in grain, whereas the majority of manganese was accumulated in maize leaves (50-64% of the total uptake). Correlation analysis showed a significant relationship between maize grain yield and the total accumulation of copper, whereas that of manganese was observed only in 3 of 8 treatments tested (WPN, WP50 and W100 as PAPR).

L.). Pak. J. Agri. Sci., 38(3-4):15-18. Danesh-Shahraki A., Kashani A., Mesgarbashi M., Nabipour M., Koohi-Dehkordi M., 2008 - The effect of plant densities and time of nitrogen application on some agronomic characteristic of rapeseed. Pajouhesh & Sazandegi, 79:10-17 (In Persian). DeLougherty R.L., Crookston R.K., 1978 - Harvest index of corn affected by population density, maturity rating and environment. Agron. J., 71(4):577-580. Holmes M.R.J., Ainsley A.M., 1977 - Fertiliser requirements of spring oilseed rape. J. Sci. Food Agric., 28(3): 301-311. Karimian

References ABOU-EL-ENIN, O. H. – FADE, J. G. – MACKILL, D. J. 1999. Differences in chemical composition and fibre digestion of rice straw with, and without, anhydrous ammonia from 53 rice varieties. In Animal Feed Science and Technology, vol. 79, pp. 129–136. ABRAHAM, A. – MATHEW, A. K. – SINDHU, R. – PANDEY, A. – BINOD, P. 2016. Potential of rice straw for bio-refining: An overview. In Bioresource Technology, vol. 215, pp. 29–36. AMANULLAH, J. – INAMULLAH, Z. 2016. Dry matter partitioning and harvest index differ in rice genotypes with variable rates of


Intercropping is an important and sustainable cropping practice in agroecosystems. Intercropping is a planting technique that farmers and gardeners can use to promote beneficial plant interactions and increases in biodiversity, enhanced production and lower economic risk. In the search for sustainable agricultural methods for medicinal plants, fenugreek and dill plants were intercropped at different additive (1:20, 1:40 and 1:60) and replacement (1:1, 1:2 and 1:3) series, at the Research Farm of the Faculty of Agriculture, University of Tabriz, Iran. Field experiment was arranged as split plot based on randomized complete block design in three replicates. Dill umbels were harvested at flowering, pasty and complete ripening stages. Results showed that among harvesting times, pasty stage had maximum essential oil percentage, essential oil yield and harvest index of essential oil, whereas among intercropping patterns, 1:1 and 1:20 treatments had the maximum values. Fenugreek as a medicinal, forage and legume crop promote dill essential oil yield and harvest index and could be an effective plant in intercropping systems.


A factorial based on RCBD experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of priming and foliar spray of cycocel on rapeseed yield components. Treatments were included; seed priming (0, 600, 900, 1200, 1500 μM) and foliar spray (0, 600, 1200 μM) with cycocel at development stage of flower buds. The results revealed that seed priming with cycocel significantly increased emerged plant number per plot, silique dry weight in the main stems and branches, plant dry weight, branches number, silique number in the main stems and branches, seed number in branches, 1000 seeds weight, and seed yield in non-stress conditions. Foliar application with cycocel also increased plant dry weight, 1000 seeds weight in branches, harvest index and seed yield. Moreover, interaction effect of priming and foliar application of cycocel increased plant dry weight and 1000 seeds weight with branches. CCC foliar application during the early stages of reproductive stage went to elevated plant dry weight and 1000 seeds weight in auxiliary branches and, also increased harvest index and grain yield. Mean comparison and interaction effects of traits also revealed that, appropriate levels of CCC had the meaningful effects on any agronomic and physiological trait. However, the most meaningful impact in most traits was traced in case with primed seed with 900 and 1500 μM CCC. Overall, owing to the present data, CCC priming under both normal and harsh conditions may raise the germination related traits, seedling establishment, plant growth and ultimately may goes to increased yield.