The synthesis of CoFe2O4 nanoparticles has been achieved by a simple thermal decomposition method from an inorganic precursor, cobalt ferrous cinnamate hydrazinate (CoFe2(cin)3(N2H4)3) which was obtained by a novel precipitation method from the corresponding metal salts, cinnamic acid and hydrazine hydrate. The precursor was characterized by hydrazine and metal analyses, infrared spectral analysis and thermo gravimetric analysis. Under appropriate annealing, CoFe2(cin)3(N2H4)3 yielded CoFe2O4 nanoparticles, which were characterized for their size and structure using X-Ray diffraction (XRD), high resolution transmission electron microscopic (HRTEM), selected area electron diffraction (SAED) and scanning electron microscopic (SEM) techniques.
This paper attempts to describe an effective method for producing a composite of quantum dots consisting of CdSe (core) with CdS (shell). This nanoparticles composite was synthesized from modified organometallic precursors. The sizes of the nanoparticles were estimated from X-ray diffraction data using Debye-Scherer formula and compared with high resolution electron microscopy (HRTEM) and optical spectra. The shape of CdSe/CdS NPs is nearly spherical and revels that the CdS shell with the thickness ~0.6 nm almost fully covers the CdSe core (higher contrast). Using UV-Vis spectroscopy, a systematic red shift in the absorption and emission spectra was observed after the deposition of CdS which confirms the shell growth over the CdSe core. In the CdSe/CdS core/shell structure, the holes are confined to the core, while the electrons are delocalized as a result of similar electron affinities of the core and the shell. The increased time of synthesis resulted in shell thickness increase. The observed properties of prepared CdSe/CdS QDs demonstrate the capability of the nanocomposite for using in the optoelectronics and photonics devices.
Viorel Ionescu, Gabriel Prodan, Ionut Jepu, Ion Mustata, Cristian Petrica Lungu and Eugeniu Vasile
NiFeCo granular ferromagnetic thin films were deposited on glass and silicon wafer substrates in thermionic vacuum arc plasma with simultaneous ignition of plasma in Cu and NiFe vapors. The structural and morphological properties of the prepared films were investigated by TEM Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Elemental composition of the films was revealed after X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy analysis (EDAX). The magneto-optical longitudinal Kerr rotation spectra of the samples were also measured and compared.
In this work, multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) with ultra-high crystalline structure have been prepared by mechanothermal (MT) method. The novel super nanostructure is introduced for the first time as an extraordinary fullerene-carbon based material which, due to its special electronic and mechanical properties, can be used to construct unique building blocks for nanoengineering. Initially, high ultra-active graphite powder has been obtained by mechanical activation under Ar atmosphere. Finally, the mechanically activated product is heat-treated at 1350 °C for 3–4 h under an Ar gas flow. However, the crystallite size and crystallinity degree of the MWCNTs increased with the increase in annealing temperature.
Carbon nanotubes have unique properties, such as thermal and electrical conductance, which could be useful in the fields of aerospace, microelectronics and biotechnology. However, these properties may vary widely depending on the dimensions, uniformity and purity of the nanotube. Nanotube samples typically contain a significant percentage of more allotropes forms of carbon as well as metal particles left over from catalysts used in manufacturing. Purity characterization of double-walled carbon nanotubes (DWCNTs) is an increasingly popular topic in the field of carbon nanotechnology. In this study, DWCNTs were synthesized in a catalytic reaction, using Fe:MgO as catalyst and methane or methane/ethanol as carbon feedstock for chemical vapor deposition (CVD). The addition of ethanol as carbon feedstock allowed to investigate the influence of oxygen on the sample quality. The purification of the as-produced material from the metallic particles and the catalyst support was performed by sonication in an acid solution. The influence of the duration of the acid treatment using ultrasound on the sample purity was investigated, and the optimal value of this parameter was found. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images confirmed the removal of impurities and served to elucidate the morphology of the samples. The purity of carbon nanotubes was analyzed using thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA). The Raman spectra of the samples, as a measure of the concentration of defects, were also reported.
S. Mageswari, S. Kalaiselvan, P. Syed Shabudeen, N. Sivakumar and S. Karthikeyan
Multi-walled carbon nanotubes have been synthesized at different temperatures ranging from 550 °C to 750 °C on silica supported Fe-Mo catalyst by chemical vapour deposition technique using Cymbopogen flexuous oil under nitrogen atmosphere. The as-grown MWNTs were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM), high resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM), X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD) and Raman spectral studies. The HRTEM and Raman spectroscopic studies confirmed the evolution of MWNTs with the outer diameter between 20 and 40 nm. The possibility of using as-grown MWNTs as an adsorbent for removal of As (V) ions from drinking water was studied. Adsorption isotherm data were interpreted by the Langmuir and Freundlich equations. Kinetic data were studied using Elovich, pseudo-first order and pseudo-second order equations in order to elucidate the reaction mechanism.
The removal of Ni2+ from aqueous solution by magnetic multiwalled carbon nanotube nanocomposite (MMWCNTs-C) was investigated. MMWCNTs-C was characterized by X-ray Diffraction method (XRD), High-Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy (HRTEM), surface area (BET), and Fourier Transform-Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). The effects of initial concentration, contact time, solution pH, and temperature on the Ni2+ adsorption onto MMWCNTs-C were studied. The Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models were applied to fit the adsorption data. The results showed that the adsorption isotherm data were fitted well to the Langmuir isotherm model with the maximum monolayer adsorption capacity of 2.11 mg g–1. The adsorption kinetics was best described by the pseudo-second-order model. The thermodynamic parameters, such as ΔHo, ΔGo and ΔSo, were also determined and evaluated. The adsorption of Ni2+ is generally spontaneous and thermodynamically favorable. The values of ΔHo and ΔGo indicate that the adsorption of Ni2+ onto MMWCNTs-C was a physisorption process.
Shuiping Li, Qisheng Wu, Chong Cui, Guosen Lu, Changsen Zhang and Zhiye Yan
TiO2/Al-MCM-41 mesoporous materials were prepared via sol-gel method by loading titania onto Al-MCM-41 mesoporous molecular sieve by hydrothermal treatment from coal-series kaolin as raw material. The TiO2/Al-MCM-41 mesoporous materials were characterized by XRD, FT-IR, HRTEM, N2 adsorption-desorption and the photocatalytic degradation of methyl orange solution under visible light irradiation. The results showed that the TiO2/Al-MCM-41 mesoporous materials possessed a high surface area of 369.9–751.3 m2/g and a homogeneous pore diameters of 2.3–2.8 nm. The titania crystalline phase was anatase, and the particles size of TiO2 increased with TiO2 content. The Al-MCM-41 mesoporous materials exhibited excellent photodegradation activity under visible-light irradiation for methyl orange.
Highly-ordered ternary Fe-Co-Ni alloy nanowire arrays with diameters of about 50 nm have been fabricated by alternating current (AC) electrodeposition into the nanochannels of porous anodic aluminum oxide templates. SEM and TEM results indicate that the alloy nanowires are highly ordered. XRD and HRTEM results show that the ternary FeCoNi alloy nanowires are polycrystalline, with HCP-FCC dual phase structure. Magnetic measurements demonstrate that the ternary alloy nanowire arrays have an obvious magnetic anisotropy with an easy magnetization direction being parallel to the nanowire arrays. Along the easy magnetization direction, the coercivity (Hc) and squareness ratio (S) increase as the annealing temperature increases, and reach a maximum level (Hc = 1337 Oe, S = 0.96) at 300 °C.
Thirunavukkarasu Arunachalam, Muthukumaran Karpagasundaram and Nithya Rajarathinam
Cerium oxide nanoparticles (CONPs) were prepared using ultrasound assisted leaf extract of Prosopis juliflora acting as a reducing as well as stabilizing agent. The synthesized CONPs were characterized by ultraviolet-visible absorption spectroscopy (UV-Vis), particle size analyzer (PSA), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). From the UV-Vis analysis, the optical band gap of the prepared CONPs (Eg = 3.62 eV) was slightly increased as compared to the bulk ceria (Eg = 3.19 eV). The phytochemicals in the extract reduced the particle size to 3.7 nm ± 0.3 nm, as it is evident from the PSA. FT-IR results confirmed the Ce-O stretching bands by showing the peaks at 452 cm-1. The Raman spectrumshowed a characteristic peak shift for CONPs at 461.2 cm-1. XRD analysis revealed the cubic fluorite structure of the synthesizednanoparticles with the lattice constant, a of 5.415 Å and unit cell volume, V of 158.813 Å3. XPS signals were used to determine the concentration of Ce3+ and Ce4+ in the prepared CONPs and it was found that major amount of cerium exist in the Ce4+ state. HRTEM images showed spherical shaped particles with an average size of 15 nm. Furthermore, the antibacterial activity of the prepared CONPs was evaluated and their efficacies were compared with the conventional antibiotics using disc diffusion assay against a set of Gram positive (G+) bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumonia) and Gram negative (G-) bacteria (Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus vulgaris). The results suggested that CONPs showed antibacterial activity with significant variations due to the differences in the membrane structure and cell wall composition among the two groups tested.