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Abstract

This study tests whether decentralized leadership influences the efficiency of running selected cultural institutions, specifically museums in the Czech Republic. For the analysis, data from 2015 from 187 museums spread around the whole Czech Republic are used. The method for the evaluation of efficiency is data envelope analysis, and for identifying the influence of decentralized leadership, a regression analysis is used. Museums established by municipalities reach higher efficiency than museums established by regions and central government. The causes may be found in the ability to better estimate the local demand as well as in the rational behavior of municipalities that prefer a cost-minimization strategy. The benefits of decentralization cannot be seen only in the field of finance but also in reinforcing local traditions, trust and the effects of social capital that is generated by a strong regional cultural identity.

Summary

Subject and purpose of work: The main goal of the article is to prove the impact of the Wałbrzych Special Economic Zone (WSSE) “Invest Park” on the development of the Wałbrzych Agglomeration region.

Materials and methods: The research carried out in 2017-2018 involved three groups of respondents: Wałbrzych Agglomeration residents, entrepreneurs and local government authorities. The study was supplemented with the information from WSSE “Invest Park”.

Results: For all three groups of respondents, WSSE “Invest Park” plays an important role in the development of the Wałbrzych Agglomeration. Its creation had the greatest impact on reducing the unemployment rate and also on improving the infrastructure. It is also important that WSSE top many rankings, gaining the first position as one of the best investment areas.

Conclusions: Establishing the WSSE in the area of the Wałbrzych Agglomeration has had a significant impact on the development of the region. This development is visible in the activities undertaken in the zone, attracting investors and creating new investment areas.

Summary

Subject and purpose of work: The subject of this analysis and evaluation is the use of renewable energy sources in Poland, particularly in the Lubelskie Voivodeship, as a peripheral region. The purpose of this paper is to identify the role and evaluate the scale and effects of using renewable energy sources (RES), as well as the availability and absorption of financial resources for RES promotion.

Materials and methods: The data were obtained from the Office of the Ruda-Huta Commune, the Regional Operational Programme Department of the Marshal Office of the Lubelskie Voivodeship in Lublin and the Department of European Funds of the Ministry of Energy, as well as Statistics Poland (GUS) and the literature on the subject.

Results: In Poland the proportion of energy from renewable sources to the total primary energy generated increased in 2012-2018 from 11.73% to 14.46%. A new phenomenon, which has been highly significant for the development of this sector, is the use of innovative, small-scale technologies of energy generation from renewable sources, which created the foundations for the growth of a citizens’ energy sector, based on the initiative of the citizens and their communities. The use of RES contributes to reduced expenditures on the purchase of energy carriers and constitutes an effective method of implementing plans for developing a low-carbon economy and reducing low-stack emissions.

Conclusions: The continuing disparities between the regions point to the need for active structural intervention to maintain economic, social and territorial cohesion, particularly in areas which are considered peripheral and have a very low GDP per capita. One of the preferred directions should be to support the use of RES.

Abstract

The main purpose of this article is analysis of the relationship between local tax and fee policies in Poland. We argue that local authorities have similar and significant discretion over tax and fee policy and, therefore, they can be analysed in a similar way. Links between these policies are analysed to find out whether they are of complementary or substitutive nature. Panel data on 578 Polish municipalities from 2012 to 2016 includes information on property tax rates and tariffs for water provision and sewage disposal for households and companies and is used to run panel regression analysis and to perform a quasi-experiment. The results indicate that there is a relationship between tax and fee policies as well as that taxes and fees are complements for local authorities. Only when a property tax rate has reached a “ceiling”, the municipalities increase fees at a faster rate than comparable municipalities below the ceiling – in this case a fee can be regarded as a substitute for a tax.

The paper is based on results of the “Fees for local public services - financial and political importance” research project. The project is funded by Narodowe Centrum Nauki (National Science Centre) grant number UMO-2015/19/B/HS4/02898

( H = 40.82, p = 0.0000), and sVCAM-1 ( H = 76.57, p = 0.0000) of blood serum was highly significant. This gives the right to assert that the statistical characteristics of the relevant indices of different groups were significantly different, and the levels of these indices depended on the patient’s group. The most significant decrease in these levels was observed in Group 3 patients ( Table 3 ), which may indirectly indicate the activity of the inflammatory process in the vessel wall and a significant abnormality in the function of the endothelium in

) ( ( :&*,$; 6 7*+H7*6 A-B 22@ @DK92@>@ @) ( A*B "I4L92 G8(D.2992 ED.2@E2=I29 .8G) ) ' ) 2 9 ( 829( $%%* &H/ A&%B 4M2(0 ) * + ) ' . :$%&7; 7/H+7 A&&B 0E2@GI@4 DE2@9 D.42 1D9 @) , ( . 9 $%&&5$/+ $%&& A&$B E(0>8<9>N>3O E) -./ . :$%&$; $%&H$&$ A&7B @) ' 0'1 ". .I< +,8$ G &*-- A&+B KEEP E) Q I 8 $%&+ : ; A&/B 92@IE1 D@129 "8RD @(>ED32S98(=93EE>@ @) 2 '- ) ( 8 = 2 8(=2 $%%* < $%%* *6H&&& A&,B =I9E2S

noch keine Einigung darüber erzielt worden, auf welche Räume sich eine Strategie der Städtevenetzung vorrangig beziehen soll. Auch in den Nachbarstaaten (z. B. Frankreich, Schweiz, Dänemark), in denen intensiv über die Vernetzung von Städten nachgedacht wird, hat man sich noch nicht entschieden, welche räumliche Kategorie für eine Strategie der Städtevernetzung in erster Linie relevant sein soll. Vgl. Brake, K. u.a.: Städtenetze: Vernetzungspotentiale und Vernetzungskonzepte. — Bonn 1996. In: Materialien zur Raumentwicklung, H. 76, S. 7–56 Aus Sicht einiger Experten

ortes Sachsen innerhalb Europas“ zu starken. Daneben gibt es - vom Bundesministerium für Raumordnung, Bauwesen und Städtebau gefordert - das ExWoSt-Projektfeld der „Städtenetze“. Hierbei handelt es sich in der Hauptsache um nicht-zentral gelegene Stadtenetze , also um außerhalb der Verdichtungsräume gelegene interkommunale Vernetzungen. Vgl. dazu u.a. Brake, K. Müller, W. Knieling, J.: Städtenetze. Vernetzungspotentiale und Vernetzungskonzepte. – Bonn 1996. = Bundesforschungsanstalt für Landeskunde und Raumordnung (Hrsg.): Materialien zur Raumentwicklung, H. 76 Der

.8 (18.7) 35 (10.5) 63.8 (16.6) <0.001 Age >60 years (%) 45.3% 2% 60.9% <0.001 Sex (%female) 63.7% 64.2% 62.7% >0.05 Hospital (H) level (%) <0.001  Community H. 75.7 2.5 62.3  General H. 14.0 16.7 21.3  Tertiary care H. 7.6 14.6 16.2  Private H. 2.7 66.2 0.2 Region <0.001  Central 26% 75% 30.9%  Northeast 40% 10% 35.6%  Other 34% 15% 33.5% Comorbidities  Atherosclerotic heart disease 0.2% 0.1% 0.6%  Congestive heart failure 0.7% 0.1% 0.7%  COPD 1.5% 0.1% 1.5%  Diabetes Mellitus 0.2% 0.3% 0.4%  Stroke 0.1% 0.0% 0.2% COPD = Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

from a commercial breeder (35 weeks old) with an initial body weight of 2,000 ± 269 g were subjected to this feeding trial. According to their body mass, the individuals were weighed, leg-tagged, and randomly distributed to six feeding regimens. As each hen was accommodated in one cage, controlled feeding and total excrement collecting was ensured. The hens were fed equal amounts of feed twice daily (8:00 AM and 5:00 PM), the feed intake was limited to 110 g/day and water was provided ad libitum. The metabolism cages (l = 50 cm × b = 50 cm × h = 76 cm) were equipped