The paper analyzes the distributional effects of social transfers in Bulgaria in the period 2000-2014, using income inequality decomposition by factor components. The results suggest that social transfers mitigate income inequality, but this effect varies depending on the type of transfer. Pensions exert the strongest influence due to their significant share in total income, which also rises over time. Family allowances are pro-poor in nature, but because of their small share in beneficiaries’ total income, their impact on overall inequality is much weaker. “Other social benefits” have the weakest inequality-reducing effect, which is due to their higher concentration towards the richest decile and increasing share in total income. Despite the inequality-decreasing impact of social transfers, we argue that they should not be regarded as the sole remedy for the sharp income disparities in the country, but need to be accompanied by relevant active labor market policies.
Astrida Miceikiene, Damian Walczak and Sylwia Pieńkowska-Kamieniecka
The aim of the article is to present the social insurance of farmers in Poland and Lithuania. In the study, the following research methods were used: the descriptive method, a literature review, statistical analysis, and an economic analysis of the law. On the basis of the study results, it was concluded that both countries have a different model of social insurance for farmers. This results from political decisions, but also from other aspects which have an impact on agriculture in those countries. It needs to be stressed that in Poland this type of insurance is about 90% subsidized, whereas in Lithuania this system is self-sustaining.
Nicolae Balteș, Florin Dumiter, Delia David and Ștefania Jimon
The pension system, together with the social assistance services form the social security system is recognized worldwide throughout the adoption of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights for the purpose of insured person compensation for damages regarding some inherent risks as: permanent or temporary inability of work, old age or unemployment. The main objectives of a pension system are decreasing poverty regarding the lower income persons throughout the conditions of limitation of the working capacity which are financially vulnerable. In this article we provide a qualitative and quantitative overview regarding the Romanian pension system structure and mechanism. The conclusions of this article highlight the need for a more comprehensive reform of this system in order to strengthen it for the new challenges still to come in the near future.
The study provides some quantitative information on voluntary pension plans in 10 CEE countries obtained from various local sources. The comparative analysis shows that there is a considerable variation in this group in terms of participation and contributions to the voluntary pension plans. In addition, this study empirically examines several factors that can possibly affect the development of voluntary pensions: income per capita and poverty rate, income inequality, replacement rate from the pension system, education attainment, interest rate and demographic burden. It uses a panel regression framework for the period of 2006–2014. The results reveal that, in the case of participation in voluntary pension plans, only income level per capita is associated with a greater number of pension plan members. As far as contributions are concerned, education seems to be the most important determinant of additional pension savings. Other factors do not seem to explain well both of the studied variables reflecting the development of voluntary pension schemes. However, as individual fixed effects are proven to be significant in the estimated models, one could conclude that country-specific characteristics play a significant role in explaining the development of voluntary pension schemes. They can be referred to the design and parametric settings of the non-mandatory pension system.
Both in theory and practice, great attention is paid to the analysis of the pension expenditures level, their determinants, as well as the options for their reduction, whereas the analysis of the revenues level and contributions, as the most significant revenue in contribution-based pension systems, is often neglected. The aim of this paper is to analyse the determinants of the level of contributions for pension and disability insurance in order to identify options for increasing their levels in the pension system of the Republic of Serbia. By using the comparative method, a comparative analysis of data about the trends of the most significant determinants of contribution levels among the European Union Member States and Serbia is performed. Research results have shown that increase in the contribution level for pension and disability insurance in the Republic of Serbia can be achieved by extending the definition of contribution base of employees, increasing the average effective retirement age and increasing the effective population coverage by this insurance. In addition to pointing out the options for increasing the contribution level for pension and disability insurance, the authors also propose the measures which can be applied in order to affect the increase of the contribution level for this insurance and, therefore, the total revenues level of the pension system of the Republic of Serbia.
Marta Chmiel, Mirosław Słowiñski and Sławomir Janakowski
The aim of this study was to evaluate selected quality attributes of pork longissimus lumborum (LL) muscle characterized by Rfn and PSe occurrence considering its microstructure. The material used in the research was 100 pork meat samples of normal quality (RFN – red, firm, normal, non-exudative) and 100 pork meat samples with PSe defect. The digital images of microstructure of selected meat samples were captured and some quality attributes, including ph level, drip loss, electrical conductivity (ec), water holding capacity (Whc) and ciel*a*b* parameters, were determined. Based on the findings obtained it was concluded that PSE meat (pH24h≤5.5) was characterized by higher degradation of muscle fibre structure when compared with the normal meat (RFN). The differences in the microstructure of PSE and RFN meat influenced the colour, electrical conductivity, drip loss and WHC of the meat. The PSE meat was characterized by a signifi- cantly lighter color and significantly higher electrical conductivity, along with more intense drip loss and worsened water holding capacity in comparison with Rfn meat.
2007. = Schriftenreihe des DVP
Schöps, Anne; Szaramowicz, Martin; Busch, Detlef; Geßner, Janko: Flächenpools und Flächenagenturen. Handbuch für die Praxis. Hrsg.: Bundesamt für Naturschutz. – Münster: Landwirtschaftsverlag GmbH 2007. = Naturschutz und Biologische Vielfalt, H. 55 (100 S.)
Zürker, Matthias: Cluster ais neue Komponente der wirtschaftsbezogenen Raumentwicklung. Kaiserslautern: Technische Universität Kaiserslautern 2007. = Materialien zur Regionalentwicklung und Raumordnung, Bd. 22
Antonín Buček, Linda Černušáková, Michal Friedl, Martin Machala and Petr Maděra
 Spencer, J. W., Kirby, K. J. (1992). An inventory of ancient woodland for England and Wales. Biological Conservation 62(2), 77-93. DOI: 10.1016/0006-3207(92)90929-H.
 Starr, C. (2005). Woodland Management - A Practical Guide. London: Crowood Press.
 Szabó, P. (2009). Open woodland in Europe in the Mesolithic and in the Middle Ages: Can there be a connection? Forest ecology and management 257, 2327-2330. DOI: 10.1016/j.foreco.2009.03.035.
 Szabó, P. (2010). Ancient woodland boundaries in Europe, Journal
.A.M. (Eds). 1994. Ornithological studies in Egyptian Wetlands 1989/90. WIWO report 40, FORE-report 94.01, Zeist, the Netherlands.
Miholcsa T., Tóth A., Csörgõ T. 2009. Change of timing of autumn migration in Acrocephalus and Locustella genus. Acta Zool. Acad. Sci. H. 55, 2: 175-185.
Moreau R.E. 1961. Problems of Mediterranean-Saharan migration. Ibis 103: 373-427. DOI: 10.1111/j.1474-919X.1961.tb02454.x Moreau R.E. 1972. The Palaearctic-African Bird Migration Systems. Acad. Press, London - New York.
, Șerban RC. Inflammation, a link between obesity and atrial fibrillation. Inflamm Res. 2015;64:383-393.
16. Kannel WB, Abbott RD, Savage DD, McNamara PM. Coronary heart disease and atrial fibrillation: the Framingham Study. Am Heart J. 1983;106:389–396.
17. Lammers WJ, Kirchhof C, Bonke FI, Allessie MA. Vulnerability of rabbit atrium to reentry by hypoxia. Role of inhomogeneity in conduction and wavelength. Am J Physiol. 1992;262:H47-H55.
18. Sinno H, Derakhchan K, Libersan D, Merhi Y, Leung TK, Nattel S. Atrial ischemia promotes atrial fibrillation in