Health Care is a sensitive issue that concerns not only the individual but also society in general. Health economics are a specialization of the economists in the health sector who aim for the proper function of hospital administration. It deals with issues related to the financing and delivery of health services and the role of such services and other personal decisions in contributing to personal health. Many researches refer to the problems that each health unit faces, emphasizing on the resources, programs and health expenditure. Some of these programs, especially the most effective, are mentioned in this research. Their creation was based on the best quality of health services in all OECD countries.
With this research, we aim to develop a methodological framework for evaluating the total health expenditure (consists of all expenditures or outlays for medical care, prevention, promotion, rehabilitation, community health activities, health administration and regulation and capital formation with the predominant objective of improving health) in the 23 OECD countries, by creating a panel data regression and analyzing the results, from 2000 to 2014. For this reason, some of the most important variables (macroeconomic and related to the health sector), were used as tools to assess the performance of each country, as far as the resources and the expenditure for the health care are concerned. Every explanatory variable that was used in this sample, but also the combination of a number of these explanatory variables showed a positive correlation with total expenditures as a percentage of GDP in the majority of the equations. Some variables showed a negative correlation with total health expenditures, which doesn’t fit with the economic theory. Financial crisis is the reason for this.
While developed and most developing nations have seen the need and continue to invest heavily in the development and training of her manpower as shown by huge budgetary allocations to education and health, Nigeria continues to play politics with her human capital development policy which has been poor and only been effective on paper despite the huge outlay of human capital available at our disposal. This study therefore examined the impact of human capital development on the macroeconomic performance of Nigeria. Using autoregressive distributed lagged model, the study proxied human capital development using government expenditure on education, government expenditure on health, secondary school enrolment rate, and school enrolment rate at tertiary level, while per capita GDP was used as proxy variable for measuring macroeconomic performance.
The results of the estimated short and long run ARDL models indicated, an insignificant and negative relationship between human capital development and gross domestic product per capita (GDPPC) in the short run. Another result of this study is that, only tertiary enrolment rate (TER) has a significant and positive impact on gross domestic product per capita (GDPPC). This finding was an indication of relatively good but insufficient efforts by government to boost human capital. The study concluded that while human capital development is crucial for accelerated macroeconomic performance, government efforts aimed at boosting human capital has had a depressing effect on macroeconomic performance. On the strength of this, the study recommended that government and economic policy makers in Nigeria should place greater emphasis on human capital development.
This study employs Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) bounds testing approach to co-integration and Granger causality technique to empirically examines the nature of relationship between infant mortality and public expenditure on health in Nigeria from 1980 – 2016. In addition, the study considers the roles of immunization, private health expenditure and external health resources on infant mortality in Nigeria. Among other things, the empirical results indicate the presence of significant conintegrating (long-run) relationship between infant mortality and government health expenditure (and private health expenditure, immunization and external health resources), coupled with the existence of bi-directional causal relationship between infant mortality and government health expenditure. In addition, the results also demonstrate that, government health expenditure, private health expenditure, immunization, and external health resources significantly influence infant mortality negatively both in the long and short term. Although, private health spending is shown as the major determinant of the reduction of infant mortality rate in Nigeria, due to the size of the coefficient of private health expenditure. In essence, the total overhaul of the Nigerian health sector, so as to improve the efficiency of the sector, as well curb the incidents of fund mismanagement which has plagued the sector overtime, coupled with the intensifying of immunization programs and activities are however recommended.
Long-term care is being prioritised due to population ageing, and hand in hand with the development of professional provision of long-term care, public expendi-tures will be increasing. Mainly countries with a sharp increase in the number of people aged 80+ will have to address the sustainability of long-term care systems and the pro-curement of relevant services. This paper aims to evaluate the forms of provision and financing of long-term care in selected OECD countries. Provision and funding of long-term care in terms of a formal system are assessed based on selected criteria using analytical methods (principal component analysis and TwoStep cluster analysis). Results of the evaluation carried out in 2008 and 2013 by means of the selected indicators of long-term care, using TwoStep cluster analysis, confirmed both similar as well as different approaches to the provision and financing of long-term care in the analysed countries. The most marked differences in the provision of care based on indicators LTC recipients aged 65+ and LTC recipients in institutions as a percentage of total LTC recipients were found between the first cluster (Australia and Korea with the highest share of LTC recipients) and the second cluster (Czech Republic, Estonia, with the lowest share of LTC recipients). In financing of long-term care (LTC expenditures on institutions as a percentage of total LTC expenditures), the most significant differences were observed between the first (Australia, Korea, with the largest share of LTC expenditures on institutions) and third cluster (mainly Nordic countries, with the lowest share of LTC expenditures on institutions of total LTC expenditures).
. h ttp://patft.uspto.gov/netacgi/nph-Parser?Sect2=PTO1&Sect2=HITOFF&p=1&u=/netahtml/PTO/search-bool.html&r=1&f=G&l=50&d=PALL&RefSrch=yes&Query=PN/9316846 6. Li, F., J. Yablon, A. Velten, M. Gupta, O. Cossairt. High-Depth-Resolution Range Imaging with Multiple-Wavelength Superheterodyne Interferometry Using 1550-nm Lasers. – Applied Optics, Vol. 56 , 2017, Issue 31, pp. H51-H56. Print ISSN: 1559-128X, Online ISSN: 2155-3165, https://doi.org/10.1364/AO.56.000H51 7. Liu, Q. et al. Charging Unplugged: Will Distributed Laser Charging for Mobile Wireless Power Transfer
VIKING Study Group (2013). Safety and efficacy of dolutegravir in treatmentexperienced subjects with raltegravir-resistant HIV type 1 infection: 24-week results of the VIKING Study. J Infect Dis. 207(5), 740-748 21. Cutillas, V., Mesplede, T., Anstett, K., Hassounah, S. & Wainberg, M.A. (2014). The addition of R262K to the H51Y mutation in HIV-1 subtype B integrase confers low-level resistance against dolutegravir. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. pii: AAC.04274-14. [Epub ahead of print] 22. Hardy, I., Brenner, B., Quashie, P., Thomas, R., Petropoulos, C., Huang, W., Moisi
., Erts, R., Nikiforovs, V. & Kviesis-Kipge, E. (2008). Wearable wireless photoplethysmography sensors. Proc. SPIE 6991, 6991120. 49. Erts, R., Kviesis-Kipge, E., Zaharans, J., Zaharans, E. & Spigulis, J. (2010). Wireless photoplethysmography finger sensor probe, IEEE Explore , 10.1109/BEC.2010.5630194, 283-284. 50. Kviesis-Kipge, E., Mecnika, V. & Rubenis, O. (2012). Miniature wireless photoplethysmography devices: integration in garments and test measurements. Proc. SPIE 8427, 84273H. 51. Erts, R., Rubins, U. & Spigulis, J. (2009). Monitoring of blood pulsation
.13. Anal. calc. for C 46 H51 NO 3 : C, 82.97; H, 7.72; N, 2.10. Found: C, 83.72; H, 7.81; N, 2.27. Structure of PFPA and PFNA. 3 Results and discussions 3.1 Thermal properties The thermal stability of the conjugated homopolymers PFPA, PFNA was investigated by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), at a heating rate of 10 °C·min −1 under nitrogen and its results are shown in Fig. 3 . The properties of PFPA and PFNA are summarized in Table 1 . The TGA analysis indicates that the degradation temperatures (Td) of the polymers with 5 % weight loss (under nitrogen) are 352 °C
psychological factors. J Psychosom Res 1990; 34: 319-325. doi: 10.1016/ 0022-3999(90)90088-L 49. Okano T, Nomura J. Endocrine study of the maternity blues. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psych 1992; 16: 921-932. doi: 10.1016/0278-5846(92)90110-Z 50. Pedersen CA, Stern RA, Pate J, Senger MA, Bowes WA, Mason GA. Thyroid and adrenal measures during late pregnancy and the puerperium in women who have been major depressed or who become dysphoric postpartum. J Affect Disord 1993; 29: 201-211. doi: 10.1016/0165-0327(93)90034-H51. Taylor A, Littlewood J, Adams D, Doré C, Glover V