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References 1. Bancroft J.D., Stevens A.: Theory and Practice of Histological Techniques, Churchill Livingstone, New York. 1996. 2. Beerens N., Heutink R., Bergervoet S.A., Harders F., Bossers A., Koch G.: Multiple reassorted viruses as cause of highly pathogenic avian influenza A(H5N8) virus epidemic, the Netherlands 2016. Emerg Infect Dis 2017, 23, 1974–1981. 3. Beerens N., Koch G., Heutink R., Harders F., Vries D.P.E., Ho C., Bossers A., Elbers A.: Novel highly pathogenic avian influenza A(H5N6) virus in the Netherlands, December 2017. Emerg Infect Dis 2018, 24

., Hogerwerf, L., Wallace, R., Holmberg, M. (2015). The dawn of structural one health: A new science tracking disease emergence along circuits of capital. Social Science & Medicine 129, 68-77. PMid:25311784 4. Smith, G.J., Donis, R.O., World Health Organization/World Organisation for Animal Health/Food and Agriculture Organization (WHO/OIE/FAO) H5 Evolution Working Group (2015). Nomenclature updates resulting from the evolution of avian influenza A (H5) virus clades 2.1. 3.2 a, 2.2. 1, and 2.3. 4 during 2013-2014. Influenza

References 1. Alexander D.J.: A review of avian influenza in different bird species. Vet Microbiol 2000, 74, 3–13. 2. Baek Y.H., Pascua P.N., Song M.S., Park K.J., Kwon H.I., Lee J.H., Kim S.Y., Moon H.J., Kim C.J., Choi Y.K.: Surveillance and characterization of low pathogenic H5 avian influenza viruses isolated from wild migratory birds in Korea. Virus Res 2010, 150, 119–128. 3. Bodewes R., Bestebroer T.M., van der Vries E., Verhagen J.H., Herfst S., Koopmans M.P., Fouchier R.A., Pfankuche V.M., Wohlsein P., Siebert U., Baumgärtner W., Osterhaus A.D.: Avian

REFERENCES 1. Alexander DJ. An overview of the epidemiology of avian influenza. Vaccine. 2007;25:5637–44. 2. Božić B, Pajić M, Petrović T, Pelić M, Samojlović M, Polaček V. Pathologic Changes in Swans Infected With Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (H5N8) Virus. Arch Vet Med. 2016;9:77–86. 3. Verhagen JH, van der Jeugd HP, Nolet BA, Slaterus R, Kharitonov SP, de Vries PP, et al. Wild bird surveillance around outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza A(H5N8) virus in the Netherlands, 2014, within the context of global flyways. Eurosurveillance. 2015

Human cases of avian-origin influenza A infections are regularly reported in Asia, with most infections occurring in people who are in direct or indirect contact with poultry [ 1 ]. Human cases of highly pathogenic H5N1 infection continue to be reported to the World Health Organization, and in 2014, there were 52 human cases of H5N1, down from a peak of 115 cases in 2006 [ 2 ]. More recent outbreaks of human cases of other zoonotic influenza strains, such as H7N9, H9N2, and H10N8, highlight the continued need for strategies to mitigate influenza viruses with

: Avian influenza in Australia: a summary of 5 years of wild bird surveillance. Aust. Vet. J., 93, 11, 387—93. DOI: 10.1111/avj.12379. 8. Hassan, M. M., Hoque, M. A., Debnath, N. C., Yamage, M., Klaassen, M., 2017: Are poultry or wild birds the main reservoirs for avian influenza in Bangladesh ? Ecohealth , 14, 3, 490—500. DOI: 10.1007/s10393-017-1257-6. 9. Kleyheeg, E., Slaterus, R, Bodewes, R., et al., 2017: Deaths among wild birds during Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza A(H5N8) virus outbreak, the Netherlands. Emerg. Infect. Dis. , 23, 12, 2050—2054. DOI: 10

-avian influenza virus (H5N1) screening of some novel pyrazolopyrimidine nucleoside derivatives, Nucleos. Nucleot. Nucl. 29 (2010) 809-820; DOI: 10.1080/15257770.2010.529480. 17. K. Hertogs, M. P. Béthune, V. Miller, T. Ivens, P. Schel, A. Van Cauwenberge, C. Van den Eynde, V. van Gerwen, H. Azijn, M. van Houtte, F. Peeters, S. Staszewski, M. Conant, S. Bloor, S. Kemp, B. Larder and R. Pauwels, A rapid method for simultaneous detection of phenotypic resistance to inhibitors of protease and reverse transcriptase in recombinant human immunodeficiency virus type 1 isolates from

particle shape. EMBO J. 1997; 16:1236-47. 13. Fouchier RA, Osterhaus AD, Brown IH. Animal influenza virus surveillance. Vaccine. 2003; 21: 1754-57. 14. Avian influenza. World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) [online]. 2009 [cited 2009 Aug 25], Available from: 15. Peiris JSM, de Jong MD, Guan Y. Avian Influenza virus (H5N1): a threat to human health. Clin Microbiol Rev. 2007; 20:243-67. 16. Tong S, Li Y, Rivailler P, Conrardy C, Alvarez Castillo DA, Chen L-M, et at. A distinct lineage of influenza A virus

-week-old chickens is either greater than 1.2 or causes at least 75% mortality in four-to-eight-week-old chickens infected intravenously. The same classification applies when the characteristic motif of basic amino acids in the cleavage site of HA is identified after sequence analysis ( 19 ). H5N8 subtype clade was first detected in domestic poultry in China in 2010. By 2014, H5N8 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses had caused a series of outbreaks among domestic ducks, chickens, geese, and wild birds in South Korea, and outbreaks followed in Japan, China


This paper aims is to analyze several challenges’ those faced by local governments in Indonesia, including its provinces, districts and cities, in implementing the Public Private Partnership (PPP) scheme. The analysis is focused on 3 challenges, as follows: 1) budget; 2) regulations (Act Number 23 of 2014 concerning Regional Government, Government Regulation Number 27 of 2014 concerning Government Asset Management and Presidential Regulation Number 38 of 2015 concerning Public and Private Partnership for Provision of Infrastructure), and 3) the party that involve on PPP projects. Therefore, some of the developed recommendations are expected to be solution for the local government in addressing these challenges.