The basic function of taxes is the fiscal function, which consists in collecting revenue by public authorities. The imposition of non-fiscal functions on taxes causes the weakening of their basic function. The purpose of the article is to present tax exemptions, as well as to assess the fiscal consequences of their application in excise duty in Poland in 2012-2016.
The Polish excise duty solutions provide for numerous tax exemptions, whereby it should be noted that a significant part are attributable to EU solutions resulting from harmonisation of this tax. In light of the conducted research, it may be concluded that the applied tax exemptions have a significant influence on fiscal efficiency (causing an average revenue decrease of approximately 7% during the examined period).
Janusz Kudła, Katarzyna Kopczewska, Agata Kocia, Robert Kruszewski and Konrad Walczyk
To finance public expenditure a government needs to raise revenue, which mainly comes from taxes and borrowings. During a financial crisis, however, financing of budget deficit is particularly difficult because of a rise in debt servicing costs that crowd out other expenses and raise the concern for government solvency. In extreme cases, governments are constrained to tax, as borrowing opportunities are strictly limited or unavailable. Still, governments can choose from tax menu options (income and consumption taxes), given the flexibility of the tax mix. This article presents a long-term dynamic model of fiscal solvency that shows the equilibrium the revenue maximising government can obtain with reasonable tax rates when capital income can be shifted and there are constraints on the consumption tax. Specifically, the solution predicts a positive level of bonds in the long-term equilibrium and the tax rates dependent positively on the abundance of the tax bases.
Janusz Kudła, Monika Stachowiak-Kudła and Adam Figurski
Purpose: The article addressed the problem of relationships between university funding and efficiency on the one hand and the quality of teaching and research on the other.
Methodology: The measurement of teaching and research quality in Polish universities was derived from two sources: 1) evaluation scores of teaching quality given to universities by the Polish Accreditation Committee, and 2) the research category grades given to university departments or units by the Polish Committee for Evaluation of Scientific Units. Subsequently, the quality measurements were correlated with financial indicators and efficiency scores obtained from data envelopment analysis.
Findings: The correlation and regression results indicated that public universities that have received higher scores of teaching quality simultaneously have higher average scientific categories. There was also a substantial relationship between the revenue per student and the revenue per teacher and variables describing quality but the regression analysis exhibited opposite directions regarding the type of quality indicator.
Research limitations/implications: The quality of teaching and research at universities was assessed despite the limited availability of internal information gathered from higher education institutions (HEIs).
Practical implications: The authorities of a university can simultaneously track the improvement of quality or financial efficiency without losing their interdependence when reforms of HEI operations are conducted.
Originality: The study proposed new measurements of quality derived from external evaluation bodies and investigated the relations of these measures with selected financial and efficiency indicators.
This paper examines the impact of audits on voluntary tax compliance in the area of value added tax in Slovenia. The analyses argues that audited taxpayers with additional tax assessments as the result of an audit display a higher level of tax compliance within the year of the audit as within the year before audit, while audited taxpayers with no irregularities on the basis of an audit do not change their behavior significantly within the same period. However, regarding the longterm effect, the results reveal the possibility of worsening tax compliance with respect to audits where an additional tax assessment was imposed and where no irregularities were discovered during an audit.
In a research paper, the authors provide an empirical approach to taxes and economic growth in the United States in the period 1996-2016. The basic goal is to explore how taxes affect economic growth. The subject of the research is measuring the effects of tax revenue growth and tax form as a personal income tax, corporate income tax and social security contributions on gross domestic product as a proxy for economic growth. Methodology framework includes several tests to clear the potential problem of heteroscedasticity, autocorrelation, multicollinearity and specification of the model. Based on diagnostic tests, a regression model is adequately created where fundamental econometric procedures are applied. Correlation matrix reflects a strong and positive relationship between tax revenue growth and corporate income tax on the one side and gross domestic product growth, on the another side. Also, personal income tax and social security contributions are weakly related to gross domestic product growth. The model shows a significant effect of tax revenue growth and social security contributions, while personal income tax and corporate income tax do not have a significant impact on gross domestic product growth. Interestingly, personal income tax as the main tax form in the tax structure of the United States has no significant impact on economic growth compared to social security contributions which percentage share is lesser.
This article analyzes the behavioral effects of cash transfer programs when jobless people need to have access to a minimum consumption level. Our model reconciles recent evidence about negligible or favorable effects of cash transfers on job-finding rates and the more standard view of negative effects. When unemployment compensation, if any, is low enough, we argue that cash transfer programs can raise the hiring probability. Our framework is flexible enough to generate the standard conclusion as well. Looking specifically at unemployment compensation, its optimal level is generally higher than when a lower bound on consumption is ignored.
We provide an analysis of the revenue-maximizing top earned income tax rate for a country with one of the highest levels of earnings taxation in the world, Finland, and compare it to the current level of taxation. We account for the effect of income-shifting possibilities in the calculations and find that the current top tax rate on earnings in Finland is likely to be below the revenue-maximizing rate. We provide an explicit account of assumptions behind the Laffer curve calculations and demonstrate that policy conclusions depend critically on non-trivial choices regarding, for example, how the current top tax rate is calculated. The assumptions in the Laffer curve calculations need to be made explicit if the calculations are to provide guidance for policy.
In the European Union Member States, value-added tax (VAT) is undergoing a continuous process of harmonization, which was initiated in the 1960s by the introduction of the First and Second Council Directives and which resulted in the implementation of the common tax assessment base. Currently, the European Union VAT system faces multiple challenges related in particular to the negative side effects of certain design features and progressing globalization. The main aim of this article is to discuss some dilemmas of the common VAT model. Particular attention is placed on the fiscal consequences of VAT preferences, as well as on the origins, components, and implications of the VAT gap. For the purpose of this analysis, 2 neighboring countries were selected, namely, Germany and Poland. On the basis of the national and Eurostat data, the author calculates the most significant VAT performance indicators and reviews the factors decreasing VAT efficiency in these countries in comparison to other European Union Member States.
Quoc H. Tran, Rachel T. A. Croson and Barry J. Seldon
We use incentivized economics experiments to test both the point predictions and comparative static predictions of optimal transfer pricing models, comparing behavior under varying conditions, including wholly versus partially-owned subsidiaries and different tariff and tax rates. As predicted, we find that transfer prices are responsive to relative tax and tariff rates as well as ownership proportions. Additionally, we examine convergence and learning in this setting. While individuals do not choose optimal transfer prices, their choices converge to optimal levels with experience. This paper thus makes two important contributions. First, by comparing behavior with theoretical predictions it provides evidence of whether (and when) individuals set transfer prices optimally. Second, by comparing behavior under conditions of full and partial ownership it provides evidence on the impact of policy interventions (like regulating ownership proportions by MNEs) on tax revenues.
The principle of VAT neutrality is among the fundamental characteristics of this tax. It is implemented through reduction of VAT output by the amount of VAT input. The right of deduction constitutes an integral part of the VAT mechanism and is intended to free the entrepreneur entirely from the burden of VAT paid for the goods and services purchased within the framework of business activity. However, in certain situations it is possible to shift the obligation to pay VAT to the customer being a taxable person by introducing a reverse charge mechanism. The purpose of the article is to identify the relationship between the implementation of the principle of VAT neutrality and the reverse charge mechanism. The conducted analysis of the essence and functioning of the reverse charge and the detailed findings drawn on its basis allow us to conclude generally that this mechanism does not affect implementation of this principle.