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Abstract

In order to study the plant growth regulator, using salicylic acid (SA) on germination and growth indices for laboratory research in crop year 2014-2015, which was conducted at the research center Safiabad-Dezful, Khuzestan province. The treatments included four levels of priming with salicylic acid {control (distilled water), 0.7, 1.2, 1.7 mM} in a completely randomized design in three replications. The results showed that the control treatment reduced the decrease in germination time. The highest percentage of germination and related characteristics of the control (distilled water) was obtained. Seed vigor and seedling vigor index were reduced in high concentrations of salicylic acid. The germination percentage of an average daily germination, seed vigor and seedling vigor index had a positive and significant correlation with the daily germination rate showed a significant negative correlation. The results of comparison of treatments showed that the treatment concentration of 0.7 mM salicylic acid highest (22.3 days) and control (distilled water) lowest (0.3 day) had mean germination time. Effects of priming showed the highest mean daily germination (15.44) related to the control and the lowest (2.97) related to the concentration of 7.1 mM salicylic acid. Also, the results showed that the 1.7 mM salicylic acid treatment had the highest number of germinated seeds per day (0.3880) and control treatment had the least number of germinated seeds per day (0.6467). The highest vigor index was observed in control treatment with seedling length of (8.15 cm) and the lowest vigor index was observed in 1.7 mM salicylic acid treatment with seedling length of (1.54 cm). The highest seedling vigor index was observed in control treatment (33.58) and the lowest seedling vigor index was observed in 1.7 mM salicylic acid treatment (17.20). The coefficient velocity germination rate in control treatment was highest (3) and in the 1.7 mM salicylic acid treatment was lowest (0.15). The correlation coefficient between vigor index and seedling vigor index has the highest value (98%). There was a positive correlation between germination percentage and mean daily germination and there was a negative correlation between germination percentage and daily germination speed.

Abstract

The present study evaluated the effects of dietary inulin on growth performance, body composition, serum, biochemical, and mucus immune factors; as well as innate immune responses of rainbow trout fry challenged with Aeromonas hydrophila. Four diets were prepared using a commercially available fish feed as a basal diet and different levels of prebiotic inulin incorporation; 0 (control), 1, 2, and 3%; referred to as C, T1, T2, and T3, respectively. The findings of the 60-day feeding trial showed that inulin inclusion affected final weight, food conversion rate (FCR), and specific growth rate (SGR) compared to that of the control group (P < 0.05), in which the lowest FCR was observed in T3. Body composition analysis revealed that inulin significantly increased protein content and decreased lipid levels, especially in the T1 and T2 groups. The lowest ash level was noticed in T2 (P < 0.05). Blood total protein, albumin, globulin, cholesterol, and glucose were not affected by inulin supplementation (P > 0.05). Analysis of humoral immune responses showed that the inulin supplements significantly increased lysozyme and complement activities (P < 0.05), as well as higher red blood cell count (RBC) and hemoglobin (Hb) in fish, fed 2% inulin, while no significant differences were observed among other treatments (P > 0.05). The mucosal parameters; including lysozyme, alkaline phosphatase (excluding ACH50); protease activities; and total Immunoglobulin (IgM) improved significantly (P < 0.05), particularly in the T2 group. The T2 group also demonstrated the highest survival rate among all groups. The present findings indicate that dietary administration of inulin promotes growth and biochemical parameters, as well as serum immunity and mucosal immune responses of rainbow trout, in which a 2% inclusion produced the best results.

Abstract

Hybridization offers huge potential in domesticating species. Poplars are important for wood production and also ornamental uses. Only two poplar parents can generate by hybridization more than 500,000 different offspring phenotypes. The article reviews some international results and presents some Russian results of poplar hybridization, emphasizing the Central Chernozem Region of the European part of Russia. During 60 years 736 crosses were realized, resulting in 54,000 hybrid seedlings. In different field trials 243 superior clones were selected. For practical operations twelve cultivars of the most productive and frost resistant poplar hybrids were selected. Three of them are now approved as varieties by the state registration authorities. In order to mitigate the risks from unforeseen disease, injury or other adverse factors in defined environments several cultivars with close economic value but with different genetic composition should be available.

Abstract

In this article, the authors report on the experiences of six years of foraging, describing how the fruit wastes generated in the Pannonhalmi Pálinkárium are utilized for foraging Hungarian grey cattle. The goal is not the control or improvement of the cattle’s growth indices but the problem-free, continuous and eco-friendly disposal of the fruit waste. They have found that the fruit waste or pomace is virtually nothing else than protein-enriched sugar-free fruit, and that during the utilization of this they have to maximally adapt to the cattle’s life-cycle, biological nature and environmental factors, and they will repay you by eating the pomace. They conclude that the grey cattle are a skin-and-hairs-covered bioreactor, which provides an economical service for the distillery through the utilization of the fruit waste. Nowadays, 150,000-200,000 tons of fruit waste is produced every year, and only a few percent of this is utilized in ruminant forage. By writing this article, the authors would like to expand our very scarce knowledge on this topic.

Abstract

This study evaluated the effectiveness of BetaPlus® combined with isomalto-oligosaccharide (IMO) in Caspian brown trout, Salmo trutta caspius (Kessler), fingerlings. A total of 120 Caspian brown trout (8.75 ± 0.03 g) were fed in two treatments, including the control diet and the synbiotic diet (0.1% BetaPlus® + 0.2% IMO) in three replicates per treatment for seven weeks. The growth indices (final weight, weight gain, average daily growth, specific growth rate, feed efficiency, and protein efficiency ratio) exhibited significant improvement in the fish fed the synbiotic diet (P < 0.05). The highest ash crude protein, and crude fiber, as well as the lowest crude lipid, dry matter, and carbohydrate detected in the carcass of fish treated with the synbiotic were significant (P < 0.05). In addition, the fish fed the synbiotic diet showed significantly higher gut trypsin activity and trypsin:chymotrypsin ratio, as well as serum superoxide dismutase activity (P < 0.05). Thus, BetaPlus® in combination with IMO can effectively lead to a considerable increase in functional factors, as well as gut proteases and serum antioxidant indicators in S. trutta caspius fingerlings.

Abstract

The retailing sector seems to be rather sensitive to social and economic developments in a society. In contrast to global retail network trends, specific processes may be observed in some lagging regions in post-communist countries. In the article attention is paid to spatial changes in food and non-food retailing locations in the region of Gemer, one of the least developed regions of post-communist Slovakia. The retailing network transformation between 1996 and 2012 was measured by applying retail capacity calculations for surplus or deficit, related to the population size of municipalities within the region. In the article, we examine food and non-food retail locations in the Gemer region with a special focus on spatial changes (urban vs rural) as well as temporal and trends based on retail capacity growth indices. In conclusion, the findings suggest that rural food and non-food retailing businesses have gone through considerable change and that it is not in harmony with the globalisation processes visible in the urban environment. Specifically, retail capacities (both food and nonfood) in the Gemer region are witnessing a period of growth.

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