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The Bacas and the Priests: How Old Adversaries Came Together to Revive and Reinterpret Tradition

Abstract

In the Polish pastoralist tradition there have always been two seminal community events which bracketed the winter season. There was the autumn event of “Redyk Jesienny” when the sheep brought back from the summer alpine pastures were given back to their owners and there was also a spring “Redyk” also called “Mieszanie Owiec” which literally means the Mixing of Sheep. Historically, it was an important event in which the head shepherd, or the baca had to use his magical knowledge to ensure that the big herd made up of sheep from the individual owners would keep together as one and produce enough milk to make this summer venture profitable. To do that he used magic spells and performed rituals learned from his predecessors. The bacas' magical knowledge was frequently in opposition to the powers of the priests who viewed them with suspicion. Today, this spring event of “Mieszanie Owiec” is much changed. It is no longer a private affair of the baca and the sheep owners. Frequently, it is a public event, a tourist attraction, with the priests often taking centre stage. There is even a new, “invented” tradition of region wide “Mieszanie” at the sanctuary of Ludźmierz. There, a small herd of around 200 sheep is symbolically used to bless all the herds going up the mountain pastures for the season. The paper examines how these traditions changed from old ethnographic descriptions and how they are evolving in a modern economic and social reality.

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Spatial and Financial Aspects of a Protected Area Functioning – The Case of the Gorce National Park

Abstract

Subject and purpose of work: The Gorce National Park (GNP) represents the object of the study. The purpose of the article is to present the GNP in the category of an area and in the category of an active managing unit. Materials and methods: Empirical research was conducted (2008-2014) based on the data collected from the GNP financial and accounting records and the Central Statistical Office. The degree of tourism function, carried out by the territorial municipalities connected with the GNP, was studied (Baretje and Defert index and Charvat index were calculated) and also the analysis of the GNP activities was conducted. Both the relevant literature query and the analysis of development strategies prepared by the territorial municipalities connected with the GNP were conducted. Results: It was found that the tourist function constitutes an important, however, not the primary function for the analysed municipalities, whereas the initiated activities (both on the part of municipalities and the GNP) indicate the desire for its intensification. The GNP has assets exceeding the value of PLN 17 million, offers jobs for the team whose total annual remuneration is almost PLN 2,5 million and the total annual costs for the last audited year amount to PLN 7,5 million. Conclusions: The described protected area constitutes the example of proper coexistence of human economic activity and nature. The GNP remains a significant entity of the local economic life scene which increases tourist attractiveness of the Gorce Mountains.

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Issues of Secondary Succession in the Subalpine Forest Glades of the Carpathian Mountains. (Case Study)

, vol. 2, Warszawa. Jarosz S., 1935, Badania geograficzno-leśne w Gorcach [Research on the geography and forests of the Gorce Mountains], Prace Rolniczo-Leśne PAU , 16, Warszawa. Michalik S., 1992, Zagrożenie i problemy aktywnej ochrony biocenoz polan reglowych [Threat and issues of active conservation of biocoenosis of subalpine forest glades], Parki Narodowe i Rezerwaty Przyrody , vol. 4, BPN, Białowieża. Michalik S., 1995, Charakterystyka aktualnego stanu zbiorowisk roślinnych, analiza procesu sukcesji i waloryzacja polan reglowych Gorczańskiego

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A Spatial and Temporal Analysis of Land Use Changes in Two Mountain Valleys: with and without Dam Reservoir (Polish Carpathians)

References Bätzing W., Perlik M., Dekleva M., 1996. Urbanization and depopulation in the Alps. Mountain Research and Development 16: 335-350. doi: 10.2307/3673985. Bucała A., 2014. The impact of human activities on land use and land cover changes and environmental processes in the Gorce Mountains (Western Polish Carpathians) in the past 50 years. Journal of Environmental Management 138: 4-14. doi: 10.1016/j.jenvman.2014.01.036. Bucała A., Budek A., Kozak M., 2015. The impact of land use and land cover changes

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Impact of land use and geological conditions on selected physical soil properties in relation to the earthworm abundance and biomass along an altitudinal gradient in Slovakia

REFERENCES Bojko O., Kabala C., 2016. Transformation of physicochemical soil properties along a mountain slope due to land management and climate changes – A case study from the Karkonosze Mountains, SW Poland. Catena 140: 43–54. Bucala A., Budek A., Maciej K., 2015. The impact of land use and land cover changes on soil properties and plant communities in the Gorce Mountains (Western Polish Carpathians), during the past 50 years. Zeitschrift für Geomorhologie 59: 41–74. Bucala-Hrabia A., 2017. Long-term impact of socio-economic changes on

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Continuity and Extinction of Agricultural Land in the Sudetes - A Case Study in the Landscape of Highlands and Mountains

REFERENCES Bičík, I., Jeleček, L., & Štěpánek, V. (2001). Land-use changes and their social driving forces in Czechia in the 19th and 20th centuries. Land Use Policy , 18 (1), 65–73. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0264-8377(00)00047-8 Bičík, I., Kupková, L., Jeleček, L., Kabrda, J., Štych, P., Janoušek, Z., & Winklerová, J. (2015). Land Use Changes in the Czech republic 1845 - 2010 . Netherlands: Springer. Bucala, A. (2014). The impact of human activities on land use and land cover changes and environmental processes in the Gorce Mountains

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The reflection of human activity in the sediments of Iwankowskie Lake from Subatlantic Phase (Polish Outer Carpathians)

–79. [14] Bronk Ramsey C, 2009. Bayesian analysis of radiocarbon dates. Radiocarbon 51(1): 337–360. [15] Brown AG., 2009. Colluvial and alluvial response to land use change in Midland England: An integrated geoarchaeological approach. Geomorphology 108(1–2): 92–106, DOI 10.1016/j.geomorph.2007.12.021. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.geomorph.2007.12.021 [16] Bucała A, 2012. Contemporary environmental changes of Jaszcze and Jamne Stream Valleys in the Gorce Mountains. Prace Geograficzne IGiPZ PAN 231: pp. 146 (In Polish

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Checklist of cyanobacteria from the European polar desert zone

nutrient enrichment. - Journal of Phycology, 41: 1120-1130. Borge O., 1899: Süsswasseralgen von Franz Josefs-Land: gesammelt von der Jackson- Harmsworth‘schen Expedition. - Öfversigt af Kongl. Vetenskaps-akademiens förhandlingar, Stockholm, 7: 751-766. Broady P.A., 1996: Diversity, distribution and dispersal of Antarctic terrestrial algae. - Biodiversity and Conservation, 5: 1307-1335. Broady P.A., Weinstein R .N., 1998: Algae, lichens and fungi in La Gorce Mountains, Antarctica. - Antarctic Science, 10(4): 376

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Morphological characteristics and lithological conditions of the spring-heads in the Knyszyńska Primeval Forest

źródłowych w Gorcach. W: Zapis działalności człowieka w środowisku przyrodniczym. Metody badań i studia przypadków [Influence of human activity on the operation of the headwater areas in Gorce. In: Records of human activities in the natural environment. Research methods and case studies]. Eds. A. Latocha, A. Traczyk. Wrocław. Wydaw. Gajt p. 96–105. W rońska D. 2006b. Wykształcenie i funkcjonowanie lejów źródliskowych potoków gorczańskich [Development and functioning of the headwater areas in Gorce Mountains. Ochrona Beskidów Zachodnich. Nr 1 p. 113–120. W

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