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., Hoseini, S. R., Javedaneh-Nia, M. (2010): An investigation of ectoparasites of goldfish ( Carassius auratusus L., 1758). Journal of Modern Veterinary Research, 2, 2, 17-24. Gussev, V. A. (1985): Identifier of parasites of freshwater fishes of USSR fauna [in Russian]. II. L. Science, 425 pp. Jalali, B., Molnar, K. (1990): Occurrence of monogeneans on freshwater fishes in Iran: Dactylogyrus pp. on cultured fish. Acta Veterinaria Hungarica, 38, 4, 239-242. Kottelat, M., Freyhof, J. (2007): Handbook of European freshwater fishes. Publications Kottelat, Cornol and Freyhof


The presence of metacercariae of Centrocestus formosanus was detected on the gills of goldfish (Carassius auratus L.) imported from Singapore and obtained from two pet shops. This is the first report of the parasite in Croatia. The histopathological changes observed lead to the conclusion that the infection could be one of the reasons for the death of goldfish.

Dynamics of nitrogen and phosphorus in closed and semi-closed recirculating aquaculture systems during the intensive culture of goldfish, Carassius auratus auratus (L.), juveniles

The aim of the study was to compare the dynamics of nitrogen and phosphorus compounds in closed (cRAS) and semi-closed (scRAS) experimental recirculation systems during intensive culture of goldfish juveniles. The results obtained underscore the varied effectiveness of biological nitrification in recirculation systems, which is dependent on both the nitrogen compound loads and water exchange. Additionally, levels of nitrogen (22878.18 mg) and phosphorus (1878.55 mg) accumulation were high in the cRAS in comparison to those in the scRAS (maximum 3797.44 and 117.41 mg for nitrogen and phosphorus, respectively). This indicates that large quantities of nutrients are discharged into the natural environment as a consequence of water exchange. The data obtained from this study can be useful at the intensive aquaculture production design stage to minimize impacts on the natural environment. Based on the results obtained, the cRAS should be put into operation approximately ten days before any experimental or intensive culture is begun. With scRAS, the culture process can commence on the fourth day after disinfection. However, with scRAS the feeding rate has to be monitored closely because of the relatively low nitrification capability of this system.

References Gromov, I. A., 1987. Oogenesis and plasticity spawning eastern carp Cyprinus Carpio Haematopterus , Biology of freshwater fishes of the Far East. Sb. nauchnich trudov . DVO AN SSSR, Vladivostok, 1–192. Goriunova, A. I., 1960. About breeding of goldfish. Voprocy Ychtiologii , 7 (15), 106–110. Mezhzherin, S. V., Lisetskii, I. L., 2004 a. Natural Hybridization between Silver Prussian Carp ( Carassius auratus ) and Crucian Carp ( C. carassius ): Evolutionary Phenomena or Absorption of One Species by Another? Dopov. Nats. Akad. Nauk Ukr. , 9, 162

References AOAC 2003 – Association of official analytical chemists – In: Official Methods of Analysis. 17 th ed. Gaithersburg. Bartley D.M., Rana K., Immink A.J. 2001 – The use of inter-specific hybrids in aquaculture and fisheries – Rev. Fish Biol. Fish. 10: 325-337. Bergmann S.M., Sadowski J., Kiełpiński M., Bartłomiejczyk M., Fichtner D., Riebe R., Lenk M., Kempter J. 2010 – Susceptibility of koi×crucian carp and koi×goldfish hybrids to koi herpesvirus (KHV) and the development of koi herpesvirus disease (KHVD) – J. Fish Dis. 33: 267-272. Bergmann S


There are two types of joke that can be described as fairy tale jokes: those with punchlines that include fairy tale characters, and fairy tale parodies. The paper discusses fairy tale jokes that were sent to the jokes page of the major Estonian internet Web Portal Delfi by Internet users between 2000 and 2011, and jokes added by the editors of the portal between 2011 and 2018 (CFTJ). The joke corpus has had different addresses at different times, and was a live ‘folklore field’ for the first few years after creation.

Of all the characters, the Goldfish appeared in the largest number of jokes (76 out of a total of 286 jokes), followed by Little Red Riding Hood (72). Other fairy tale characters feature in a 14 or fewer fairy tale jokes each.

Several fairy tale jokes circulating on the Internet varied over the period observed. Fairy tale jokes generally get their impetus from the characters and from plots with unexpected outcomes. A seemingly innocent fairy tale character is often linked to a sexual theme: sexuality holds first place as the source of humour in fairy tale jokes, although this may be caused by the so-called genre code of jokes.

Changes in the diet composition of Pygmy Cormorant Phalacrocorax pygmeus on Skadar lake (Southern Montenegro)

Diet changes of Pygmy Cormorant Phalacrocorax pygmeus, a piscivorous bird feeding primarily on fish up to 15 cm long, were studied on Skadar Lake. The breeding population on the lake was estimated at over 2,000 pairs in 2005 and 1,260 pairs in 2006, comprising about 5-8% of the regional population of SE Europe & Turkey. The first diet analysis, based on stomach contents of specimens hunted in the course of the breeding season, was carried out in the period 1973-1975 in order to identify the influence of the birds on commercial fishery. Further samples of regurgitated or accidentally dropped food items during the feeding of nestlings were collected and analyzed in the 2006 breeding season. Results from both periods are presented and changes in diet composition in the course of over 30 years are discussed. Between 1973-1975 and 2006, the Pygmy Cormorant's diet on Skadar Lake changed drastically. Only one fish species, Rudd Scardinius knezevici, was found to be common to both study periods. Pygmy Cormorant's diet in the period 1973-1975 consisted of 11 fish species (N = 224 specimens), belonging to five families. The most abundant fish species were Roach Rutilus ohridanus and Albanian Roach Pachychilon pictum. Diet analysis in 2006 revealed only six species (N = 98 specimens) from two families, and also showed that the introduced Goldfish Carassius auratus became a major food source for Pygmy Cormorant, constituting 84.7% of the total specimen number. Age class analysis of Goldfish items revealed that juvenile specimens (45-90 mm) comprised 89.0% of the total Goldfish compound. The study confirms that the Pygmy Cormorant is not a species-specific hunter and suggests it is not affected by the changes in composition of fish community in the littoral zone of the lake. Fish consumption by Pygmy Cormorants on Skadar Lake in 2006 was estimated at 45 t during the most intensive foraging period (June-August).

References Abramenko, M. I., Kravchenko, O. V., Velikoivanenko, A. E. 1997. Population genetic structure of the goldfish Carassius auratus gibelio diploid-triploid complex from the Don River Basin. Journal of Ichthyology, 37, 1, 62–71 [In Russian]. Ambroz, A. I. 1956. Fish of the Dnipro, the Southern Bug and the Dnipro-Bug estuary. USSR Academy of Sciences, Kiev, 1–404 [In Russian]. Belling, D., Himmelreich, K. 1940. The fishes of Berdy and Obitichnaja rivers . Supplement. Academy of Sciences of the USSR. Kiev, 10, 3–6 [In Ukrainian]. Chernay, A. 1852

REFERENCES 1. Davis D. A., Saoud I. P., Boyd C. E. and Rouse D. B., 2005 – Effects of potassium, magnesium, and age on growth and survival of Litopenaeus vannamei post-larvae reared in inland low salinity well waters in west Alabama, Journal of the World Aquaculture Society , 36, 403-406. 2. Luz R. K., Martínez-Álvarez R. M., De Pedro N. and Delgado M. J., 2008 – Growth, food intake regulation and metabolic adaptations in goldfish (Carassius auratus) exposed to different salinities, Aquaculture , 276, 171-178. 3. Majabi A., Nazifi S. and Safi S. H., 2001

signifies an expansion of the vertebrate heterodimeric cytokine family. Mol Immunol 2006, 43, 1519–1533. doi: 10.1016/j.molimm.2005.10.010. 9. Jaros J., Korytar T., Huong D.T., Weiss M., Köllner B.: Rainbow trout ( Oncorhynchus mykiss ) thrombocytes are involved in MHC II dependent antigen presentation. Fish Shellfish Immunol 2013, 34, 1657. 10. Katakura F., Katzenback B.A., Belosevic M.: Molecular and functional characterization of erythropoietin receptor of the goldfish ( Carassius auratus L.). Dev Comp Immunol 2014, 45, 191–198. 11. Katakura F., Katzenback B