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Katyniu. Jak niemiecka propaganda przedstawiała w 1943 roku sprawę mordu popełnionego na polskich ofi cerach, „Zeszyty Katyńskie”, 1, p. 88-115, [German press on Katyń. How German propaganda presented in 1943 the homicide committed on Polish offi cers]. P. Łysakowski, Problematyka polska w trzech gazetach niemieckich z lat 1933-1934: „Voelkischer Beobachter, Frankfurter Zeitung, Kolener Stadt Anzeiger, „Dzieje Najnowsze”, XXI - 1989, 1, p. 41-67 [Th e issue of Poland in three German newspapers from the years 1933-1934: „Voelkischer Beobachter, Frankfurter Zeitung


This article presents the analysis of thematic, historical and political spectrums of the “Ukrainian” content in the German newspapers and magazines of the interwar period. As a source base for this scientific work the authors analyze the newspaper and magazine journalism of that time, which allows not only to keep certain historical episodes (konstatives), but also (in some way) to reflect the views, needs, intentions, challenges, promises as well as German political and social factors in terms of disillusionment of Ukrainian patriotic forces (performatives). Nazism and Bolshevism skillfully used propaganda to achieve predatory targets, therefore it should be a lesson for the future generations, also the importance of conceptional media in Ukraine and Poland should increase.


The aim of this article is to characterize the German minority press market in Poland in the period of 1989-2017. The article constitutes a discussion regarding terms that are key for the undertaken subject, i.e., “national minority”, “ethnic minority” and “the press of national and ethnic minorities”; furthermore, a typology of the functions of these media is presented. The analysis covered the socio-political framework of the functioning of minority media, as well as legal regulations at the level of publishing activities of national and ethnic minorities and the support of the Polish state towards publishing initiatives of minorities from 1989 to the present day. The article also constitutes an overview of German minority press issued in 1989 - 2017 in the Polish state. Characteristics of the periodicals contain information about their creation, presentation of graphic layout and publishing formula, as well as the thematic profile of the published contents. Approximating the German minority in Poland, the author attempts to answer the question of what role the German press once played in the Polish German society, and what is its role today, as well as who are the recipients of the German press in Poland today, what is its current condition and what are the prognoses for its development in the short and longer term. The conducted research applied technical analysis and analysis of press content. The study uses a number of sources. These include state documents published in journals of law, in various types of bulletins, reviews and in the on-line version.

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. Hampshire: Palgrave Macmillan. Niemi, M.K. (2009) ‘Kohu- ja skandaalijournalismi moraalin ja moralismin keväässä’, in V. Pernaa, M. K. Niemi & V. Pitkänen (eds.), Politiikan journalismin tila Suomessa (pp. 179-227). Turku: Kirja-Aurora. Rahat, G. & Sheafer, T. (2007) ‘The personalization(s) of politics: Israel 1949-2003’, Political Communication 24, 65-80. Reinemann, C. & Wilke, J. (2007) ‘It's the debates, stupid! How the introduction of televised debates changed the portrayal of chancellor candidates in the German press, 1949–2000’, Press/Politics 12(4): 92

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headlines’, Journalism Practice , 6 (5-6): 648-658. Esser, F. (1999) ‘`Tabloidizationʼ of News: A Comparative Analysis of Anglo-American and German Press Journalism“, European Journal of Communication , 14(3): 291-324. Galtung, J. & Ruge, M. (1999) ‘The Structure of Foreign News’, in Tumber, H. (ed.) News. A reader , Oxford: Oxford University Press pp. 21-31. Gieber, W. (1999) ‘News is what Newspapermen Make It’, in Tumber, H. (ed.) News. A reader , Oxford: Oxford University Press pp. 218-223. Gynnild, A. (2008) ‘Klikket som tilbakemedling’, in: Ottosen, R., Krumsvik

:// Hyland, Ken. (2005). Metadiscourse: Exploring interaction in writing . London: Continuum. Jaworska, Sylvia, & Krishnamurthy, Ramesh. (2012). On the F word: A corpus-based analysis of the media representation of feminism in British and German press discourse, 1990–2009. Discourse & Society , 23 (4), 401–431. Jeffries, Lesley. (2010). Critical stylistics: The power of English . Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan. Krummes, Cédric. (2013). “internet-de” German Frequency List (Mixed Case) [Electronic

Multilingual & Multicultural Development 25(5–6): 437-452. Musolff, Andreas (2006). Metaphor scenarios in public discourse. Metaphor and Symbol 21(1): 23–38. Musolff, Andreas (2009). Love, parenthood, and gender in the European family: The British perspective. Renger, Almut-Barbara, Roland Alexander Ißler, eds. Europa: Stier und Sternenkranz. Von der Union mit Zeus zum Staatenverbund . Gottingen: V&R unipress – Bonn University Press, 536–548. Musolff, Andreas (2010). The Eternal outsider? Scenarios of Turkey’s ambitions to join the EU in the German press. Šaric, Ljiljana

in ExELL

balanced pol- itician, previously skeptical when it came to the sanc- tions, appealing for diplomatic actions and rescuing Russian-European relations. The changing atmosphere is well illustrated by critical articles on the situation in Russia or Russian cultural policy in German press. 26 Confrontat ion and cooperat ion. 1000 Years of Pol i sh-German-Russ ian re la t ions In German policy the tendency to cease searching for the reasons for the conflict in improper communica- tion was vivid. Now, they began to be set in the internal – political conflict. Seen like