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. Journal of American Oil Chemists’ Society, 49, 696-699. Vit, P., Roldan, S., Tamer, E., Olivo de Acosta, E., Bianchi, M. (1992). Deteccion de adulteraciones en cera de abejas comercializadas en Venezuela. Revista del Instituto Nacional de Higiene Rafael Rangel, 23, 23-27. Waś, E., Szczęsna, T., Rybak-Chmielewska, H. (2014a). Determination of beeswax hydrocarbons by gas chromatography with a mass detector (GC-MS) technique. Journal of Apicultural Science, 58(1), 145-157. Waś, E., Szczęsna T., Rybak-Chmielewska H. (2014b). Hydrocarbon

resolution NMR, FTIR, and GC-MS to a comparative study of some indigenous seed oils from Botswana. Innovative Food Science and Emerging Technologies 44: 181-190. Zhang M., X. Yang, H.T. Zhao, A.J. Dong, J. Wang, G.Y. Liu, P. Wang, C.L. Cheng and H. Zhang. 2015. A quick method for routine analysis of C18 trans fatty acids in non-hydrogenated edible vegetable oils by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Food Control 57: 293-301.

-Chmielewska H. (2014a) Determination of beeswax hydrocarbons by gas chromatography with a mass detector (GC-MS) technique. Journal of Apicultural Science 58(1): 145-157. DOI: 10.2478/ JAS-2014-0015 Waś E., Szczęsna T., Rybak-Chmielewska H. (2014b) Hydrocarbon composition of beeswax (Apis mellifera) collected from light and dark coloured combs. Journal of Apiculture Science 58(2): 99-106. DOI: 10.2478/JAS-2014-0026

.H. (2010). Development of analysis condition and detection of volatile compounds from cooked Hanwoo beef by SPMEGC/MS analysis. Korean J. Food Sci. Anim. Resour., 30: 73–86. Baruth S., Ternes W. (2011). Volatile compounds of three types of roasted waterflow (duck, mallard and goose) and of roasted duck marinated in orange juice. Arch. Geflugelk., 75: 204–214. Berezińska A., Bzducha A., Obiedziński M.W. (2007). Investigation of the applicability of SPME-GC/MS technique and principal component analysis in the evaluation of a volatile fraction of blue-veined cheeses. Pol. J


Here we describe a method of hydrocarbon (alkanes, alkenes, dienes) identification and quantitative determination of linear saturated hydrocarbons (n-alkanes) in beeswax using gas chromatography with a mass detector technique (GC -MS ). Beeswax hydrocarbons were isolated using a solid-phase extraction (SPE ) technique with neutral aluminum oxide (Alumina - N, 1000 mg, 6 mL), then were separated on a non-polar gas chromatography column ZB-5HT INFERNO (20 m×0.18 mm×0.18 μm). Qquantitative analysis of n-alkanes was conducted by the method of internal standard with squalane used as the internal standard. The basic parameters of validation (linearity and working range, limit of determination, repeatability and reproducibility, recovery) were determined. For all of the identified compounds, satisfactory (≥0.997) coefficients of correlation in the working ranges of the method (from 0.005 to 5.0 g/100 g) were obtained. The elaborated method was characterized by satisfactory repeatability and within-laboratory reproducibility. The average coefficients of variation for the total n-alkanes did not exceed 2% under conditions of repeatability or 4% under conditions of reproducibility. The recovery for individual n-alkanes was above 94%; for their total content, it was 100.5%. In beeswax originating from Apis mellifera, n-alkanes containing from 20 to 35 carbon atoms in their molecules were determined. The total content of these alkanes was between 9.08 g and 10.86 g/100 g (on average, 9.81 g/100 g). Additionally, apart from the saturated hydrocarbons, unsaturated hydrocarbons and dienes were identified.


The pollen of stingless bees is derived from flower pollen mixed with bee digestive enzymes and preserved with honey and nectar. In this study, the volatile compounds present in ethanolic bee pollen extracts (BPEs) from three species of the Malaysian stingless bee were analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Hydrocarbons, sugars and its derivatives, fatty acids, amino acids, alcohol, uridine, aldehyde and an unknown carbamate were detected. Mannitol, the main sugar compounds, represented 54.34% in Trigona thoracica, 39.11% in Trigona apicalis and 33.05% in Trigona itama. Propanoic acid and hexadecanoic acid were the main hydrocarbons present in the extract of Trigona apicalis (4.04%) and Trigona thoracica pollen (1.28%) respectively. The polyunsaturated fatty acids linoleic acid and α-linolenic acid were found in small amounts in all BPEs (0.07-1.11%). The chemical compounds found in BPEs had biological activities, thus bee pollen may be useful in traditional medicine and as a health supplement.

References 1. ARO SOP 475B, Method validation using ResVal .Validation according to EC/2002/657, RIVM. 2. Baldwin R.S., Williams R.D., Terry M.K.: Zeranol: a review of the metabolism, toxicology, and analytical methods for detection of tissue residues. Regul Toxicol Pharmacol 1983, 3 , 9-25. 3. Blokland M.H., Sterk S.S., Stephany R.W., Launay F.M., Kennedy D.G., Van Ginkel L.A.: Determination of resorcylic acid lactones in biological samples by GC- MS. Discrimination between illegal use and contamination with fusarium toxins. Anal Bioanal Chem 2006, 384 , 1221

drugs of abuse in urine by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry: Experience and application. Arh Hig Rada Toksikol 2000;51:389-400. PMID: 11276966 22. Jung J, Meyer MR, Maurer HH, Neusüß C, Weinmann W, Auwärter V. Studies on the metabolism of the Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol precursor Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinolic acid A (Δ9-THCA-A) in rat using LC-MS/MS, LC-QTOFMS and GC-MS techniques. J Mass Spectrom 2007;44:1423-33. doi: 10.1002/jms.1624 23. Martignoni M, Groothuis GMM, de Kanter R. Species differences between mouse, rat, dog, monkey and human CYP-mediated drug metabolism

leaves of seven Egyptian Cassia species, Acta Pharm. 60 (2010) 361-367; DOI: 10.2478/v10007-010-0030-y. 15. K. Ilango, G. Maharajan and S. Narasimhan, Preliminary phytochemical screening and antibacterial activity of fruit pulp of Momordica dioica Roxb. (Cucurbitaceae), African J. Basic Appl. Sci. 4 (2012) 12-15; DOI: 10.5829/idosi.ajbas.2012.4.1.61106. 16. A. Neha and P. Shashi, GC-MS analysis of the essential oil of Celastrus paniculatus Willd. seeds and antioxidant, anti-inflammatory study of its various solvent extract, Ind. Crop. Prod. 61 (2014) 345-351; DOI: 10

References 1. El-Beqqali A, Abdel-Rehim M. Quantitative analysis of methadone in human urine samples by microextraction in packed syringe-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (MEPS-GC-MS). J Separ Sci 2007;30:2501-5. doi: 10.1002/jssc.200700067 2. Kharasch ED. Current concepts in methadone metabolism and transport. Clin Pharmacol Drug Dev 2017;6:125-34. doi: 10.1002/cpdd.326 3. Samanidou VF, Anastasiadou K, Papadoyannis IN. Development and validation of a rapid HPLC method for the determination of methadone and its main metabolite EDDP in biological fluids