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-Chmielewska H. (2014a) Determination of beeswax hydrocarbons by gas chromatography with a mass detector (GC-MS) technique. Journal of Apicultural Science 58(1): 145-157. DOI: 10.2478/ JAS-2014-0015 Waś E., Szczęsna T., Rybak-Chmielewska H. (2014b) Hydrocarbon composition of beeswax (Apis mellifera) collected from light and dark coloured combs. Journal of Apiculture Science 58(2): 99-106. DOI: 10.2478/JAS-2014-0026
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Here we describe a method of hydrocarbon (alkanes, alkenes, dienes) identification and quantitative determination of linear saturated hydrocarbons (n-alkanes) in beeswax using gas chromatography with a mass detector technique (GC -MS ). Beeswax hydrocarbons were isolated using a solid-phase extraction (SPE ) technique with neutral aluminum oxide (Alumina - N, 1000 mg, 6 mL), then were separated on a non-polar gas chromatography column ZB-5HT INFERNO (20 m×0.18 mm×0.18 μm). Qquantitative analysis of n-alkanes was conducted by the method of internal standard with squalane used as the internal standard. The basic parameters of validation (linearity and working range, limit of determination, repeatability and reproducibility, recovery) were determined. For all of the identified compounds, satisfactory (≥0.997) coefficients of correlation in the working ranges of the method (from 0.005 to 5.0 g/100 g) were obtained. The elaborated method was characterized by satisfactory repeatability and within-laboratory reproducibility. The average coefficients of variation for the total n-alkanes did not exceed 2% under conditions of repeatability or 4% under conditions of reproducibility. The recovery for individual n-alkanes was above 94%; for their total content, it was 100.5%. In beeswax originating from Apis mellifera, n-alkanes containing from 20 to 35 carbon atoms in their molecules were determined. The total content of these alkanes was between 9.08 g and 10.86 g/100 g (on average, 9.81 g/100 g). Additionally, apart from the saturated hydrocarbons, unsaturated hydrocarbons and dienes were identified.
The pollen of stingless bees is derived from flower pollen mixed with bee digestive enzymes and preserved with honey and nectar. In this study, the volatile compounds present in ethanolic bee pollen extracts (BPEs) from three species of the Malaysian stingless bee were analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Hydrocarbons, sugars and its derivatives, fatty acids, amino acids, alcohol, uridine, aldehyde and an unknown carbamate were detected. Mannitol, the main sugar compounds, represented 54.34% in Trigona thoracica, 39.11% in Trigona apicalis and 33.05% in Trigona itama. Propanoic acid and hexadecanoic acid were the main hydrocarbons present in the extract of Trigona apicalis (4.04%) and Trigona thoracica pollen (1.28%) respectively. The polyunsaturated fatty acids linoleic acid and α-linolenic acid were found in small amounts in all BPEs (0.07-1.11%). The chemical compounds found in BPEs had biological activities, thus bee pollen may be useful in traditional medicine and as a health supplement.
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