The aim of this paper was to verify if the goodwill (positive or negative) disclosed after a merger or acquisition is sensitive to manipulating the financial result in the acquiring company. Manipulating the result referred to the extent of cost allocation in short-term prepayments. Later we examined if the operational result achieved by the acquiring company (profit or loss) has an impact upon the revealed goodwill. The verification of the research hypotheses was performed with the use of statistical tools (linear regression analysis, nonlinear regression function test, normality of residual distribution test). As a result of the research, no significant relation between allocating costs and the disclosed negative goodwill was found, only in the case of positive goodwill its value was related to the allocating in assets costs. Neither positive nor negative goodwill was related to the operating results of the acquiring companies in one year preceding the merger or acquisition.
Corruption is a factor that affects a company severely either directly or indirectly. It may have a positive or negative impact on the economic situation of the company. This article verifies the hypothesis about the corporate perception of corruption as an obstacle to business performance. It also identifies which factors do have a substantial effect on the perception of corruption by companies. The study was carried out using the logit model. The data used were obtained from the Business Environment and Enterprise Performance Survey (BEEPS) database for 2016.
Foreign and larger banks in Croatia are generally considered to be more cost efficient compared with domestic and smaller banks. However, those views are often based on data from financial statements that can be misleading due to simultaneous consolidation process on the market and the existence of economies of scale. To contribute to the Croatian banking efficiency literature, we construct a panel of individual bank data for 1994-2014 period and conduct a frontier analysis to calculate bank specific X-efficiency. Our results suggest that efficiency scores depend on the cost definition as domestic and smaller banks are more efficient in managing administrative costs compared with foreign and larger banks but equally efficient in managing total costs. Results indicate that average bank relative efficiency increased on two occasions: one in the late 90s in the period of banking crisis and subsequent “market cleansing” and to a lesser extent in the period marked with financial crisis. Although the differences between bank cost efficiencies seem small, we conclude that the area is worth further research as significant gains in bank earnings could be achieved by increasing efficiency.
Research purpose: Seven of 10 companies that have won the Polish Forbes edition Merge & Acquisition 2018 Ranking are listed on Warsaw Stock Exchange. The aim of the conducted research was to test if the biggest acquisitions have an impact on stocks value and is it possible for typical investor to create extra profit by using knowledge of acquisition based on public information.
Design/Methodology/Approach: Using data from Warsaw Stock Exchange (quotations), typical measures such as rate of return, standard deviation (risk), correlation and transaction volume changes were calculated. Each of the case results obtained for the company was compared with the result for stock market indexes: WIG (Warszawski Indeks Giełdowy – main WSE index), WIG20 (WSE sub-index of the 20 largest companies), mWIG40 (WSE sub-index of 40 medium companies) and sWIG80 (WSE sub-index of 80 small companies). In addition, the outcomes were confronted with public news (from WSE Electronic System for Information Transfer).
Findings: Conducted research has shown that generally successful finalisation of acquisition results in changes of stock prices behaviour. Unfortunately, observed reactions were not the same. Acquisitions induced both increases and decreases in stock prices; there was also no rule in case of risk change. Generally, acquisitions and merges had rather good influence in banking sector (which is still concentrating), but there was no common reaction in other sectors.
Originality/Value/Practical Implications: The results will be useful for investors acting on Warsaw Stock Exchange, especially for individual investor who are not able to carry out detailed analyses. The research provides results including possible pre-effects and after-effects of making big acquisition by a large company. The negative market reactions were also shown.
The paper compares the before and after merger position of long term profitability with respect to selected Indian banks for a period of 2003-04 to 2013-2014. The financial performance is evaluated on the basis of various variables. The study found a negative impact of merger on return on equity, return on assets, Net profit ratio, yield on advance and yield on investment. However, variables, namely, the Earnings per Share, Profit per employee and Business per employee have shown positive trend and grown after the merger. It has been observed that after the merger, the Assets, Equity, Investment and advances of all banks increases, but due to underutilization, their respective yield decreases. On a contrary, the business per employee and profit per employee have increased due to optimum utilization of human resources. By applying the Comparative Analysis, the paper also assesses the financial performance of acquiring bank with the banking industry. The Bank of Baroda and Oriental bank of commerce has found decreases in Yield on Advances and yield on investment as compared to average of all banks in the postmerger period. State bank of India & IDBI Bank has higher business per employee and profit per employee as compared to industry average.
Using a sample of 104 companies that conducted initial public offering (IPO) on the Warsaw Stock Exchange between 2006 and 2016, we investigated the relationship between the accuracy and bias of the earnings forecast disclosed in the IPO prospectus and the firm corporate governance attributes. Applying multiple Ordinary Least Squares (OLS) regressions models, we focused on the role of the board size, the percentage of women on the board, the board age diversity measure, and the proportion of shares owned by the members of the board. Generally, our findings show that some characteristics of management and supervisory board improve the usefulness of earnings forecasts’ credibility. Especially, a more diversified board in terms of age and higher management ownership results in more accurate forecasts. This is the first study giving an insight into the role of supervisory and management board characteristics on precision of earnings forecasts revealed in the prospectus by Polish IPO companies.
Corporate Governance (CG) in India has undergone major transformation in the recent past with the enactment of Companies Act, 2013 and revision of SEBI’s Listing Agreement. Though some studies were undertaken in the Indian context few conventional aspects of CG have been repetitively addressed with conflicting results. The aim of this study is to examine the impact of some prominent CG attributes such as board size, board independence, role duality, board’s gender diversity, ownership concentration and audit committee independence on both market as well as accounting based measures of firm performance (FP). To this end the study uses a sample of top 100 non-financial and non-utility firms listed on the Bombay Stock Exchange (BSE) for the period of 2014-2018 and employs two stage least square with instrumental variables technique of estimation which takes into account potential endogeneity in CG-FP relationship. The findings reveal a significant positive impact of board size, ownership concentration and audit committee independence on market based measure of FP while board independence is found to have a significant negative impact on accounting based measure of FP. Moreover role duality and gender diversity are not associated with FP. The outcome of this study highlights how the relationship between CG and FP works in the unique institutional setting of India and it should be of interest to regulators, practitioners and other market participants.
Purpose: The aim of this study was to identify the content of disclosures presented by public companies listed on the Warsaw Stock Exchange on the internal control and risk management systems in relation to financial reporting.
Methodology: The study contents were formulated with the use of literature studies. Content analysis studies and disclosure index studies were used for the study of narrative disclosures. The research was of a qualitative nature.
Results: The results showed that the companies listed on the Polish capital market are still at the stage of formulating reporting practices in the area of control systems over financial reporting. It should be noted that the diversity in information presented within disclosures about control systems over financial reporting is considerable. For some companies, the disclosures are formulated at such a high level of generality that no firm conclusions can be drawn. Detailed items of disclosures presented by particular companies can be identified in the reporting practices. The findings may provide the basis for constructing an index of disclosures about control systems over financial reporting.
Scope of research: The study examined disclosures about internal control and risk management systems in relation to financial reporting presented by public companies listed on the Warsaw Stock Exchange.
Originality: Disclosures about internal control and risk management systems in relation to financial reporting are a relatively new issue in Polish practice. The literature studies carried out as part of the research indicate that this issue is a research gap.
The aim of the paper is to determine if there is any link between goodwill recognised in a business combination and the future performance of the combined company. The authors focused on examining the effects that business combinations had on the profitability of selected companies, performing a statistical analysis of their financial results. The study covered 730 Polish companies participating in a merger process (the acquiring company was examined at the time of the merger and 3 years after the merger date). The research included companies disclosing positive goodwill (99 companies) and not disclosing it (631 companies). The research period covered mergers in the years 2007-2012. The profitability analysis for 3 years after the merger covered the period until 2015. The result of the empirical research shows that the companies which recognised goodwill during the merger process were more profitable in the examined period of time. The study contributes to a wide research area focusing on examining the effects of business combinations on the future efficiency of combined companies.
A bank, particularly in developing countries like Turkey, is one of the most important institutions in the financial sector. Therefore knowing the factors affecting the performance of banks is important for the development of the sector. One of the factors affecting the risk and profitability of banking sector is the internal factors of the banks. The aim of this paper is to investigate the board of directors’ characteristics and its effect on risk level measured by non-performing loans and on bank performance measured by asset profitability using the Generalized Method of Moments (GMM) estimator. Data from nineteen deposit banks for the period 2012–2018 were used. The result of the study determined that the board size, foreign board members and the independent board members have an effect on both non-performing loans and the return on assets.