The goal of this paper is to present the net working capital strategies relationship with the systematic risk ratio, namely beta coefficient, that is a measure of a stock’s volatility in relation to the market. The strategy of financing assets reflected in net working capital is influencing the financial liquidity policy and the risk of the company thereafter. Decisions and strategies that are performed by management are assessed by investors when a company is listed on the exchange and should be reflected in share price volatility. The survey is based on quantitative analysis of NewConnect non-financial company data. The results of the analysis show that the relationship between net working capital indicators and beta coefficient is negative.
The paper analyses the motives behind trade use credit in the Polish enterprise sector, based on the results of the 2016 NBP Annual Survey. It verifies the conclusions stemming from trade credit theories regarding both the main motives driving supply and demand for trade credit, as well as explaining the variation in their relevance across companies. The analysis shows that trade credit supply in Poland is driven to a large extent by suppliers’ desire to win and maintain their customers: allowing deferred payments creates attractive terms of sale and is often a requirement set by clients with strong bargaining power. These results indicate high willingness of customers to settle their payments on a deferred basis, which could mirror an important fact uncovered by the survey: contrary to the assumptions made in many theories, trade credit proves to be a relatively cheap form of financing for the majority of the surveyed firms. As a consequence, trade credit could be perceived by firms as an attractive, standard tool used in day-to-day business rather than an expensive form of financing used only to address specific problems or achieve other benefits that would outweigh its high costs. Survey results provide some confirmation for this explanation of trade credit demand.
The financial result of a company is undoubtedly the most frequently analyzed category in making economic decisions. The changing needs of financial statements users resulted in the replacement of the classic financial result with the broader concept of comprehensive income, which was regulated in the International Accounting Standard 1 Presentation of financial statements. As a result a statement of the entity’s comprehensive income is created. An important element analyzed by the scientific community is the presentation of the mentioned comprehensive income and its usefulness. The purpose of the article is to determine the impact of introducing the obligation to prepare a statement of comprehensive income on the usefulness of the financial statement. The usefulness has been assessed from the perspective of the form of statement of comprehensive income and the relevance of other comprehensive income’s items as compared with net income.
The author of the article outlined the results of the research on the taxonomy and the specificity of the transfer of profits to shareholders of dividend companies which are components of the WIG, DAX, CAC40 and S&P 500 indexes for the period 2013-2019.The purpose of the article is a critical assessment of the systematic distribution of dividends by domestic and international companies, taking into account the rate of dividend growth, the cumulated rate of dividends and the average rate of return on investments in shares of these companies. The studies carried out included 120 companies listed on the Polish, German, French and American markets (30 companies in each country), which in the period 2013-2019 paid dividends and at the end of 2019 had the highest capitalization in a given index. Then the author analysed for each market only those issuers who paid the dividends without interruption during the period considered (continuously for 7 years).
The main objective of this paper is to analyze one of the alternative sources of financing - equity crowdfunding - from the point of view of managerial processes. Based on the case study analysis and the comparative analysis the problems and challenges of raising funds using equity crowdfunding are discussed, comparing the findings with the issuing of shares. The analysis show that although many of the activities undertaken in raising funds through issuing shares and equity crowdfunding are similar, the managerial processes in the case of equity crowdfunding require from the company first of all building and caring about relationships with investors, rather than showing and proving effectiveness. In exchange for the low legal requirements, the equity crowdfunding investors expect good communication even if the promises are not fulfilled.
There are two competing hypothesizes on whether firms that are part of a business group should pay higher or lower dividends. Under one hypothesis, that can have different theoretical assumptions, firms that are a part of a business group should pay higher dividends. In contrast, if the pecking order hypothesis holds, firms that operate within a business group should pay lower dividends. The purpose of this paper is to examine the effect of group affiliation of Croatian firms, which are listed on the Zagreb Stock Exchange, on their propensity to pay dividends. Two panel data models were used in line with recent literature and the results of the study show some evidence that the pecking order theory was followed by Croatian firms. From this result the conclusion is that Croatian firms are more likely to pay dividends if they are not part of a business group.
This research attempts to analyze the relationship between agency, control and corporate governance attributes for a sample of 267 firms listed on the Pakistan Stock Exchange (PSX) from 2005 to 2008. The results show that a) Pakistani listed firms are facing high agency costs problems in contrast to established markets. b) Factors are observed important to having strong effect on mitigating agency costs levels: corporate dividend policy, degree of board independence, and institutional ownership. c) Corporate governance factors reduce discretionary expenditure ratio, increase assets utilization ratio and free cash flow ratio. d) Control variables increases the asset utilization ratio and decreases the free cash flow and increases the managers’ performance (Tobin’s Q ratio). e) Ownership attributes regulate free cash flow and decrease the discretionary expenditure ratio. The outcomes of this research lead to the proposed use of recommended governance, control and ownership attributes to overcome agency problems and a sound policy for better corporate governance (better management of agency cost issues) for listed firms.
Research background: This article describes the issue of dividend companies that are components of the WIG index and S&P 500 during the period 2009–2017.
Purpose: The aim of the study was to identify similarities and differences in dividend payments by issuers during the period 2009–2017.
Research methodology: It describes the assessment of investments in companies on the basis of the continuity and variability of dividends paid (taking into account the rate of dividend growth and the cumulated rate of dividends, statistical measures – median and standard deviation), as well as the comparison of issuers from the Polish and US stock exchange.
Results: The results of the study confirm the existence of differences in dividend pay-outs by companies listed on both exchanges.
Novelty: First of all, Polish dividend companies are characterised by a higher average annual dividend growth rate and an average annual rate of return. What is more important, the average accumulated dividend (as well as its median) of companies from the WIG index is higher than the same group of companies belonging not only to the S&P 500 index companies, but also to American dividend aristocrats.
Research background: Mutual companies are a major component of the life insurance industry worldwide and moreover are growing in importance. Efficiency, potentially affected by whether a life insurer company is mutual or stock, can determine how well said companies perform.
Purpose: The aim of this paper is to demonstrate the importance of examining the efficiency of mutual and takaful (similar to mutuals) life insurance companies.
Research methodology: This research coordinates 1) ideas regarding the size and importance of the mutual and takaful life industries worldwide, 2) theoretical aspects concerning how the efficiency of mutual/takafuls is expected to compare to that of stock insurers and 3) the outcomes of germane life insurance efficiency studies.
Results: The outcomes of life insurance efficiency studies tend to show that, in total, stock insurers are more efficient than mutuals apart from one conspicuous element. As mutuals are substantial within several of the world’s largest life markets and the global life industry their being inefficient can be exceedingly negative. The overall conclusion is that such inefficiency can lead to dire economic problems so it is imperative to investigate the efficiency of mutuals/takafuls and perhaps the one element of stocks.
Novelty: This article is the first to investigate the results of mutual/takaful life insurer efficiency studies in concert with the abovementioned theory and draws a vital conclusion regarding mutual/takaful life insurer inefficiency.
The Author of the article presents the results of research devoted to the forms of transfer of profit to shareholders of the companies quoted at Warsaw Stock Exchange in the period 2009–2013. The Author concluded that there are features in the group of dividend companies and another group – that of dividend companies which additionally execute share redemption and cancellation – which make them different.