The purpose of the present paper is to examine the revenue efficiency of the Malaysian Islamic banking sector. The study also seeks to investigate the potential internal (bank specific) and external (macroeconomic) determinants that influence the revenue efficiency of Malaysian domestic Islamic banks. We employ the whole gamut of domestic and foreign Islamic banks operating in the Malaysian Islamic banking sector during the period of 2006 – 2015. The level of revenue efficiency is computed by using the Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) method. Furthermore, we employ a panel regression analysis framework based on the Ordinary Least Square (OLS) method to examine the potential determinants of revenue efficiency. The results indicate that the level of revenue efficiency of Malaysian domestic Islamic banks is lower compared to their foreign Islamic bank counterparts. We find that bank market power, liquidity, and management quality significantly influence the improvement in revenue efficiency of the Malaysian domestic Islamic banks during the period under study. This study provides for the first time empirical evidence that covering all three efficiency concepts, namely cost, revenue, and profit efficiency is completely missing from the literature. By calculating these efficiency concepts, we can observe the efficiency levels of the domestic and foreign Islamic banks. In addition, by comparing both cost and profit efficiency, we can identify the influence of the revenue efficiency on the banks’ profitability.
The advances in science and technology have benefited many industries. In recent years, we have witnessed the rapid development of financial technology. All of them worked hard in this area, such as Amazon, UPS, and Wal-Mart International. In China, leading e-commerce platforms such as Alibaba and Tencent actively provided services to SMEs in their ecosystems; Taiwan also make efforts to develop it. The emergence of networking account scientific and technological AMIS provides various payment companies, lending platform, financial robots. Although Taiwan’s innovation industry faces many restrictions on its development, it will still go through it. Therefore, Taiwan has continued to update laws and regulations related to financial technology. The latest rule “Financial Science and Technology Development and Innovation Experiments Regulations” regards the development of Taiwan’s financial technology. FinTech has gradually replaced the traditional financial service model. Through mobile payments, cloud platforms, and artificial intelligence, the technology industry has gradually penetrated into the financial industry. We are willing to make more progress in Taiwan’s financial technology to deepen the understanding of FinTech as a study.
Overheating of economic and financial activities leads to macrofinancial imbalances that may disrupt financial stability, and can be detected by studying relevant indcators. In this study we developed an aggregate early warning index of macrofinancial activity for Romania over the 1998q1-2020q4 period, employing data from six categories: (i) macroeconomic risks, (ii) bank risks, (iii) activity of corporations and households, (iv) monetary and financial conditions, (v) risk appetite and (vi) external shocks. We determine the utility of these variables from two perspectives: (i) whether these indicators are able to detect overheating of macrofinancial activity in Romania in two periods characterized by systemic crises and (ii) whether these variables successfully minimize various statistical errors involved in forecasting future events. Comparing the evolution of our index with a series of indicators that measure investors’ perception of macrofinancial stability or the probability of default of Romanian economy, we note the positive correlation between these two, but our index exhibits a more pronounced early warning component, making it extremely useful in anticipating future systemic crises.
A bank, particularly in developing countries like Turkey, is one of the most important institutions in the financial sector. Therefore knowing the factors affecting the performance of banks is important for the development of the sector. One of the factors affecting the risk and profitability of banking sector is the internal factors of the banks. The aim of this paper is to investigate the board of directors’ characteristics and its effect on risk level measured by non-performing loans and on bank performance measured by asset profitability using the Generalized Method of Moments (GMM) estimator. Data from nineteen deposit banks for the period 2012–2018 were used. The result of the study determined that the board size, foreign board members and the independent board members have an effect on both non-performing loans and the return on assets.
The article constitutes a legal and economic discussion of the economic factors which may and should be taken into account while calculating the benefits compensating the loss of income of the injured and of their families in case of death. The analyzed benefits are an important element of compensation of economic loss in personal injury cases where the compensation is the duty of the perpetrator (or the entity responsible for him/her) within the system based on tort liability. In light of the ubiquitous nature of TPL insurance, the payer is usually the insurance company liable under the granted guarantee. The scope of such cover results from the contract and/or legal acts. The subject calculation was based on an actuarial annuity which also takes into account the likelihood of the claimant and his/her relatives living until the subsequent periodical payments. The applied calculation is of an illustrative nature with regard to the considerations of the relevant economic assumptions made at the time of loss calculation. The discussion carried out in the article concerns the size and value of the economic factors that can be used in this model.
This paper investigates the impact of the degree of capital account openness on banks’ exposure to extreme events during the period 2005-2012 using a sample of financial institutions from Central and Eastern Europe. The empirical output highlights a positive and strongly significant impact of a higher degree of financial openness on banks’ systemic vulnerability. Robust findings suggest that this harmful effect is lower for foreign owned banks or for those whose bank holding company signed one or more Vienna Initiative commitment letters. On the other side, tighter capital regulations and private monitoring policies enhance the positive impact of a higher degree of capital accounts openness on banks’ vulnerability to systemic events.
In this paper we assess the effectiveness of macroprudential policies in ensuring a sustainable contribution of the financial sector to economic growth. Our results sustain that macroprudential policies have beneficial effects on economic growth, expressed by the GDP per capita growth rate. Macroprudential policies, adopted to strengthen the resilience of the financial system and decrease the buildup of systemic risks, contribute to the economic growth by assuring a stable financial system, and, therefore, a healthier financial-macro relationship. Macroprudential policies that target financial institutions have greater impact on real economy compared with borrower-related macroprudential policies.
This paper examines the agency model of dividends where the importance of dividends depends on the level of investor protection. The importance of dividends is presented by the dividend smoothing concept, while the level of investor protection is determined by the legal origin. Within this, the sensitivity of dividends to earnings changes was analyzed to examine the universality of the dividend smoothing phenomenon. Subsequently, the difference in proportions of dividend smoothing firms within the common law and civil law countries was tested to determine which of these two systems attributes more importance to dividends. Finally, the application of Lintner’s model was examined in transition countries as well as in United States. Research results show that dividend smoothing is a globally widespread phenomenon, but the likelihood to reduce or cut dividends is greater in civil law countries. Also, the largest percentage of dividend smoothing firms was recorded in common law countries.
The paper contains an analysis of the economic and regulatory concept of bank liquidity in the context of systemic liquidity shock. A formal model analysis shows that the application of liquidity coverage ratio (LCR) based on Basel III will lead to a significant adaptation of banks liquidity management. LCR causes a change in bank’s liquidity allocation and funding to be less effective and more costly and restrictive for providing credits comparing with economic determinants. It is demonstrated that the application of LCR underestimates actual liquidity position of a bank and leads to allocation ineffectiveness. The empirical part contains simulation of impacts of systemic liquidity shock on the banking sector’s ability to withstand the unfavourable credit shock while solvency is maintained. The results confirm the robustness of the Czech banking system ensuing from the systemic surplus of liquidity, high volume of bank capital and its high profitability. The estimations of the VAR model show that the relations between liquidity characteristics of banks, sources of aggregate liquidity shock, interbank market illiquidity and the credit facilities of the Czech National Bank are relatively weak, supporting the conclusion that the banks face liquidity shocks of non-persistent character.
This paper investigates the impact of business models on bank performance during the period 2007-2008 among 156 banks from Central and Eastern European countries. The findings show that banks with higher capitalization perform better and present a lower probability of default. The orientation towards the traditional lending activities as well as a higher degree of income diversification boosts performance. Using a Difference-in-Difference framework we also highlight the importance of bank business strategies for bank performance across different bank characteristics (ownership, size) and macroeconomic conditions (financial crisis, EU membership status, regulatory framework.