Crowdfunding is a method of financing new ventures, commercial, cultural or social, often in return for future products or actions, engaged in by many investors. Currently, it is an important element in the structure of available sources of financing for investment projects. Despite the interest of potential investors, individual social sponsors and large-scale activities of institutions promoting knowledge about the functioning of crowdfunding aimed at encouraging and promoting it as a source of capital for new ventures, there is a lack of knowledge and, consequently, experience on its development and achievement. The aim of this study is to analyze this source of financing, assess its development globally and in Poland. In the preparation of the article,. a critical analysis of foreign and Polish literature was carried out, and descriptive and comparative research methods applied. The research task undertaken in the study was to analyze the crowdfunding market globally and in Poland. The Polish crowdfunding platforms were detailed and compared in terms of value in relation to the largest global platforms. The source for analyses of crowdfunding development in Poland was available literature on the analyzed topic and secondary data from the websites of specialized internet platforms. The article depicts a new, but important, aspect of financing the activity of enterprises, which is crowdfunding. It should be emphasized that there is still insufficient knowledge about this type of institution and, as a result, the importance and role that social financing plays in the financial market.
The aim of the paper is to discuss key challenges facing central banks due to evolution of payment systems. The author distinguishes two aspects of the problem. The first one considers the implications of changes in payments for the roles of central banks in national payment systems, namely their role as operators, oversight authorities and catalysts. The second question is how evolution of payment systems influences the nature of central banking. The study is based on the literature review and the analysis and assessment of the information coming from the reports of international institutions. It also uses the results of the author’s survey, which was conducted among central banks of eleven countries.
The research leads to the conclusion that the challenges for central banks concern among others: monitoring and assessing innovations and new mechanisms of payments, information policy in the area of payments, promotion of standardization and interoperability of systems, effective oversight and operational activities of central banks. The changing payments landscape also requires consideration of long-term implications for monetary policy and central banks’ revenues.
Long-term persistence of low interest rates and a decline in attractiveness of investing in low-interest bank deposits generate additional demand for investments in investment funds. In such a situation, it is expected to have widespread use of the investment efficiency measures which take into account not only return, but risk level. The study examines eight measures of efficiency based on the Sharpe ratio. The study uses monthly data for 22 active equity funds over the period 2005-2015. It was found that the majority of funds were more efficient than the market in periods of moderate economic growth and less effective in the period of strong growth on the capital market. The most efficient funds retain high efficiency in all phases of the economic cycle. The efficiency values obtained using indicators: Shape, Treynor, Jensen, Sortino, Omega, Sharpe-Israelsen and IR were strongly correlated, while values of the UPR indicator were significantly different from the other results.
The European Union regional method is a revolutionary one, with the purpose of expanding and allocating resources for disadvantaged regions. Its progress is monitorized in order to track the efficient use of funds and the application of suitable measures at European level policy interaction as a Member State actions can bring consequences for others. Regional development targets all the subjects that are currently being discussed at national or European level, the effects of the reorganization, the greatest achievement concerning economic and social cohesion, mitigating intra- and inter regional differences.
The article presents the main features of one category of innovative financial products – exchange traded commodities (ETCs) and results of the analysis of the European market for ETCs. ETCs are products listed and traded on the stock exchanges and they offer investors returns based on various assets (commodities or currencies). In contrast with the most widely recognized exchange traded funds (ETFs), ETCs are structured as debt instruments due to legal requirements regarding investment funds in the European Union. The European ETCs market is the largest in the world (in terms of assets its share in the global market in 2015 was close to 98%). It had developed rapidly until 2012 when total assets reached the record-high value of ca. 26,6 billion EUR (i.e. 9,5% of total assets of all exchange traded products listed in Europe). Over the next few years both the value of assets and market share of ETCs decreased significantly, mostly due to decline of the tracked assets’ prices (especially commodities) – during the analyzed time period the average flows to commodity or currency ETCs were close to 0. An important feature of the European market is its high concentration level, both in terms of companies launching ETCs and locations of the trade in the share of ETCs. Four ETC providers manage most of the assets (with the cumulated market share of over 94%). Three exchanges –in London, Milan and Frankfurt am Main account for almost the entire regulated market turnover of ETCs in Europe.
The main purpose of the submitted article is the estimation of financial investors’ potential in Poland. There are four groups of collective investors on financial market in Poland like Banks, Insurance companies, Investment funds and Open Pension Funds, which have been analyzed. Their importance on financial market and especially on capital market in Poland is still rising. The dynamics of their assets value in 2009 – 2013 periods has been analyzed. Financial investors’ assets and Gross National Product in Poland ratio has been calculated. The influence of the financial crisis and post-crisis time on the investment portfolios structure has been also reviewed.
In this paper I focus on analyzing whether Polish absolute return funds, which I call quasi-hedge funds, add value to a portfolio of an individual investor by reaching higher returns than Polish stock funds. I use a sample of 25 Polish absolute return investment funds to contrast their short and long term performance, measured by Sharpe, Sortino and Jensen ratios, to the short and long term performance of 20 biggest Polish stock funds and build rankings based on that performance. Later I build funds of funds (with a different number of stock funds and/or quasi-hedge funds) and check which of them is the most efficient. I find out that in both short and long term Polish quasi-hedge funds have better returns than stock funds and they add much value to the investors’ portfolios. It can be explained by the fact that they are much smaller and younger than traditional funds, so they have much higher potential to grow and reach abnormal returns.
Mutual fund fees are extraordinarily high in Poland – almost three times higher than in Western Europe and almost five times higher than in the United States. In fact is that from among 183 Polish open-ended stock mutual funds as many as 81 impose a management fee of 4%, which is the highest value in the sample. The question arises whether it is really worth to invest in funds from the more expensive group. Comparing funds charging the highest fees (4%) with the cheaper ones it seems that there is no statistically significant difference between rate of return, risk and efficiency. However, more expensive funds have on average higher costs, are three years older and have almost 70% bigger assets. This may suggest that a well-established market position – not performance – is the trigger for raising their fees. Interestingly, funds with a relatively high minimal initial contribution level (5,000 PLN) have significantly lower management fees with similar costs, total assets value and performance results. Further analysis has also indicated that the costs level (Total Expense Ratio) is higher for older funds, while it is not related to funds’ size.
During the last decades, institutional investors have been the main players, both in developed as well as in emerging stock markets. Thus, their investment behavior was analyzed at the national or international level, in order to assess if institutional investors herd, increase stock return volatility, affect market efficiency and liquidity, influence the corporate governance, or destabilize stock prices. This paper studies the behavior of the institutional investors on the Romanian stock market, a European frontier market that struggles to attain the status of emerging market. We examine if the disclosure level generates any herding behavior for institutional investors. In emerging markets, the lack of transparency affects the degree of investments in a listed company, as long as insider trading is pushed to the limit of the legal line. For this study, we used financial information from the companies listed on the Bucharest Stock Exchange for the period 2010-2014. The findings highlight that there is a certain herding behavior among institutional investors in Romania.
The article aims at pointing out the differences in market reactions regarding the announcement of an investment of selected Sovereign Wealth Funds in companies listed on the London Stock Exchange. The research sample consists of 796 market transactions made by four selected Sovereign Wealth Funds. The author employed event study methodology to calculate the average abnormal returns and cumulative abnormal returns for each fund in subsamples. The empirical findings suggest that investors react differently to the information about a fund’s investment. To the best of the author’s knowledge, the literature does not provide any answer as to how the market reacts to information disclosure of individual funds. Therefore, this paper bridges the gap in the literature within this field.