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Are Capital Ratios Procyclical? Evidence from Turkish Banking Data

Abstract

This paper contributes to the literature by providing recent empirical evidence about the positioning of the capital adequacy ratios (Basel II capital adequacy ratio and leverage ratio as proposed by Basel III) of Turkish banks and the business cycle. As in many emerging countries, the Turkish real sector is highly dependent on the banking loans for financing, and consequently, the macroeconomic system is vulnerable to the supply of bank loans. The results reveal that the Basel II capital adequacy ratio of Turkish banks is procyclical at a statistical significance in normal and crisis times. The results of cyclicality tests of the leverage ratio are mixed: if nominal GDP growth is taken as a business cycle indicator, it is procyclical; however, the credit-to-GDP gap signals countercyclical leverage ratios in normal times. In crisis times, the leverage ratio of the Turkish banking system is determined to be countercyclical.

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Cost Efficiency of Banks in Croatia

Abstract

Foreign and larger banks in Croatia are generally considered to be more cost efficient compared with domestic and smaller banks. However, those views are often based on data from financial statements that can be misleading due to simultaneous consolidation process on the market and the existence of economies of scale. To contribute to the Croatian banking efficiency literature, we construct a panel of individual bank data for 1994-2014 period and conduct a frontier analysis to calculate bank specific X-efficiency. Our results suggest that efficiency scores depend on the cost definition as domestic and smaller banks are more efficient in managing administrative costs compared with foreign and larger banks but equally efficient in managing total costs. Results indicate that average bank relative efficiency increased on two occasions: one in the late 90s in the period of banking crisis and subsequent “market cleansing” and to a lesser extent in the period marked with financial crisis. Although the differences between bank cost efficiencies seem small, we conclude that the area is worth further research as significant gains in bank earnings could be achieved by increasing efficiency.

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Solvency and Liquidity Level Trade-off: Does it Exist in Croatian Banking Sector?

Abstract

We focus on 32 Croatian banks in the period 2002-2010 in order to investigate the solvency-liquidity nexus. Dynamic panel data analysis is applied on two basic models in which current liquidity ratio and equity to assets ratio are set as dependent variables, interchangeably, and other explanatory variables employed to capture the effect of bank size, profitability and asset quality as well as macroeconomic environment. We found two-way positive relationship between bank solvency and liquidity. However, bank size plays an important role in the capital and liquidity management, and trade-off between the solvency and liquidity level is found for the larger banks. Therefore, policymakers should take into consideration capital and liquidity interdependence, as well as the bank size effect when designing capital and liquidity requirements in order to downsize the regulatory burden for smaller banks, and increase them for larger banks. Namely, larger banks tend to minimize regulatory costs by avoiding simultaneous increase of liquidity and solvency. Small banks do exactly the opposite and stock both, capital and liquidity, what potentially makes their funds allocation sub-optimal, from their own as well as social point of view. Altogether, the paper contributes to scarce empirical evidence regarding bank solvency and liquidity interdependence, particularly when the post-transitional banking sectors are taken into consideration. It adds to knowledge on bank financial management in praxis, and bank managers and prudential authorities might find it relevant for their policies design and implementation.

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Macroeconomic Determinants of Shadow Banking – Evidence from EU Countries

Abstract

Shadow banking is a topical, debated issue on the agenda of national and European macro-prudential regulatory and supervisory authorities. It is generally accepted that shadow banks and the traditional banking system have some core functions in common, such as credit and maturity transformation, and the exposure to similar risks. However, the tight banking regulations and the decreasing trend recorded by interest rates in the post-crisis period create prospects for shadow banking sector growth. Against this background, the present paper aims at investigating the particular impact that shadow banking activity exerts on macroeconomic fundamentals. The analysis covers 15 European Union countries, including Romania, during the period 2008 – 2015, using quarterly data. Shadow banking system is used as a proxy by monetary funds, due to breaks in the series or unbalanced number of observations across selected countries. By employing panel regression, it was found that the shadow banking total assets’ variation is negatively influenced by the GDP growth, short term interest rates, M2/GDP ratio and the ratio of investment funds’ assets in GDP, and positively determined by stock index dynamics and long term interest rates. The findings sustain the literature’s point of view

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Effects of the Application of the CRM Concept to Profitability of the Banks

Abstract

CRM (Consumer Relationship Management) is a recent concept. Development and introduction of this concept in the banking operations started in the ‘90s. Due to complex market conditions and the current environment in which banks operate, it is necessary to have a new method for doing business, which will provide quick and efficient recognition of clients. This business concept entirely replaces the traditional operating methods of the bank, where the focus is on clients, their needs, and wishes. The CRM concept enables the bank to respond to the individualized demands of the clients with quality banking products and services. With this, the banks manage to deal with the tough competition and make a profit. The goal of this paper is to examine the importance, development, and implementation of the CRM in the banks. The paper tries to prove the hypothesis: Introduction of the CRM philosophy in the banking operations leads to increased profitability of the bank.

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Assessment of the State of Competition in the Banking Market in the Russian Federation

Abstract

Competition is one of the factors directly influencing the development of the banking market, the stability of the banking system, and the monetary system as a whole. This article describes the features of banking competition, methods of analysis of banking competition, and an analysis of the current state of competition in the banking market in the Russian Federation. The analysis of banking competition in the Russian Federation was performed using the concentration ratio for the top three companies and the Herfindahl-Hirschman Index. The research concludes with an assessment of the state of competition in the banking market and identification of the barriers to entering the financial services market.

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Challenges for central banks in a changing payments landscape

Abstract

The aim of the paper is to discuss key challenges facing central banks due to evolution of payment systems. The author distinguishes two aspects of the problem. The first one considers the implications of changes in payments for the roles of central banks in national payment systems, namely their role as operators, oversight authorities and catalysts. The second question is how evolution of payment systems influences the nature of central banking. The study is based on the literature review and the analysis and assessment of the information coming from the reports of international institutions. It also uses the results of the author’s survey, which was conducted among central banks of eleven countries.

The research leads to the conclusion that the challenges for central banks concern among others: monitoring and assessing innovations and new mechanisms of payments, information policy in the area of payments, promotion of standardization and interoperability of systems, effective oversight and operational activities of central banks. The changing payments landscape also requires consideration of long-term implications for monetary policy and central banks’ revenues.

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Pre & Post-Merger Financial Performance: An Indian Perspective

Abstract

The paper compares the before and after merger position of long term profitability with respect to selected Indian banks for a period of 2003-04 to 2013-2014. The financial performance is evaluated on the basis of various variables. The study found a negative impact of merger on return on equity, return on assets, Net profit ratio, yield on advance and yield on investment. However, variables, namely, the Earnings per Share, Profit per employee and Business per employee have shown positive trend and grown after the merger. It has been observed that after the merger, the Assets, Equity, Investment and advances of all banks increases, but due to underutilization, their respective yield decreases. On a contrary, the business per employee and profit per employee have increased due to optimum utilization of human resources. By applying the Comparative Analysis, the paper also assesses the financial performance of acquiring bank with the banking industry. The Bank of Baroda and Oriental bank of commerce has found decreases in Yield on Advances and yield on investment as compared to average of all banks in the postmerger period. State bank of India & IDBI Bank has higher business per employee and profit per employee as compared to industry average.

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Testing out the disciplinary role of debt in Croatian banks

Abstract

According to the agency theory, debt brings discipline to management and therefore, one way of reducing agency costs is by increasing the level of indebtedness. Even though there are a number of specificities of banks as corporations, this agency theory postulate should still be valid. This research is motivated by the need to understand microeconomics of banking better, which could be especially rewarding in CEE countries where the issues of credit risk, bank capital and corporate governance are specific. Accordingly, by testing the disciplinary role of debt in Croatian banks, we contribute to the still scarce literature on bank governance in Croatia. We operationalise the research by first generating an efficiency measure, which we believe adequately represents management efforts and ability to maximize the value of owners’ investment. In the next step, we explore the relation between banks' efficiency and leverage. Our results do not indicate that debt generally creates a discipline mechanism for bank managers in Croatia.

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The Jackson Queueing Network Model Built Using Poisson Measures. Application To A Bank Model

Abstract

In this paper we will build a bank model using Poisson measures and Jackson queueing networks. We take into account the relationship between the Poisson and the exponential distributions, and we consider for each credit/deposit type a node where shocks are modeled as the compound Poisson processes. The transmissions of the shocks are modeled as moving between nodes in Jackson queueing networks, the external shocks are modeled as external arrivals, and the absorption of shocks as departures from the network.

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