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Comparison of Two Different Methods for Cardiovascular Risk Assessment: Framingham Risk Score and Score System

Comparison of Two Different Methods for Cardiovascular Risk Assessment: Framingham Risk Score and Score System

Numerous studies have shown that the major risk factors for coronary heart disease (cigarette smoking, hypertension, elevated serum total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol - LDL, low serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol - HDL, diabetes mellitus and advancing age), are additive in predictive power. Accordingly, the total risk of a person can be estimated by summing up the risk imparted by each of the major risk factors. Using data obtained from population studies, various risk assessment algorithms have been developed. The aim of this study was to compare the two most common risk scores. Risk assessment for determining 10-year risk in 185 healthy, asymptomatic individuals of both sexes, 30-85 years old, was carried out according to both Framingham (FRS) and SCORE risk scoring. The risk factors included in the calculation of 10-year risk are gender, age, total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, systolic blood pressure, treatment for hypertension and cigarette smoking. The determinations of total cholesterol and HDL-cholesterol were made in sera collected after a 12h fasting period using an Olympus AU2700 automated analyzer. The Framingham risk score was determined using an electronic calculator - ATP III Risk Estimator, and the risk status according to SCORE was obtained using charts for the 10-year risk in populations at high risk. Among 185 participants, in 152 (82%) 10-year risk for Coronary Heart Disease (CHD) death was <10%, 24 (13%) had intermediate and 9 (5%) had high risk (⩾20%) according to FRS. According to SCORE, 110 (60%) participants had <1%, 56 (30%) had 1-5% and 19 (10%) had ⩾5% of 10-year risk for cardiovascular death. Different categories of risk were assigned to ~30% of individuals according to different risk assessment models. Differences in risk classification when using two different risk assessment algorithms can be explained with several important issues, including different endpoints, consideration of interactions and incorporation of antihypertensive use. It is important to note that neither FRS nor SCORE have been appropriately adjusted for our population, according to the national cardiovascular mortality rate.

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Metabolic acidosis status and mortality in patients on the end stage of renal disease

coronary heart disease is the Framingham risk score (FRS). According to the National Institutes of Health, the patients having chronic kidney disease are considered as having a coronary heart disease risk equivalent, meaning that they are primarily patients with a 10-year risk for myocardial infarction or coronary death >20%, despite without known coronary heart disease. [ 8 ] Metabolic acidosis, a common condition and an important manifestation of the late stage of chronic kidney disease, leads to clinically significant consequences, including bone disease disorders

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Relations Between Diabetes, Kidney Disease and Metabolic Syndrome: Dangerous Liaisons

Abstract

Background and aims: Diabetes mellitus is the disease-challenge of our century, characterized by an increase in serum glycemia, which may lead to the occurrence of micro- and macro-vascular complications with serious consequences on both patient and public health. The Framingham risk score was obtained from a complex study and it estimates the individual risk of each patient to develop a cardiovascular event over the next 10 years depending on certain parameters (age, smoking, total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, systolic blood pressure). Our study main aim was to evaluate the cross-associations between the components of the metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular risk, diabetes-related biological parameters and chronic kidney disease in patients hospitalized due to poor metabolic control.

Material and methods: In this cross-sectional study, we enrolled 218 patients with type 2 diabetes, admitted in the Diabetes Clinic of the “Pius Brinzeu” Emergency Hospital Timisoara according to a consecutive-case population-based principle.

Results: We observed that the quality of the glycemic control is impaired in patients with higher age; the body mass index was positively correlated with HbA1c and hypertension accompanies diabetes in more than half of the cases. Moreover, we observed that high levels of LDL cholesterol are significantly correlated with high levels of HbA1c.

Conclusions: There was poor metabolic control in patients with associated complications such as hyperlipidemia, cardiovascular disease or chronic kidney diseases. Also, in most of the cases hypertension was associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

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Biochemical Aspects, Laboratory Diagnosis and Follow-Up of High Blood Cholesterol: NCEP ATP III Guidelines

Biohemijski Aspekti, Laboratorijska Dijagnoza I Praćenje Povišene Koncentracije Holesterola: Preporuke NCEP ATP III

Treći izveštaj ekspertske grupe o detekciji, evaluaciji i tretmanu povišene koncentracije holesterola u odraslih (Adult Treatment Panel III, ATP III) predstavlja ažuriran klinički vodič Nacionalnog programa edukacije o holesterolu (National Cholesterol Education Program, NCEP), o određivanju holesterola i zbrinjavanju osoba s povišenom koncentracijom holesterola u serumu. Pored toga što preporučuje intenzivan tretman pacijenata sa koronarnom srčanom bolešću (coronary heart disease/CHD), važna karakteristika ATP III je težište na primarnoj prevenciji kod osoba sa više prisutnih faktora rizika. ATP III nastavlja da identifikuje povišene koncentracije LDL holesterola kao primarni cilj terapije za snižavanje holesterola. Osnovni princip prevencije je da se intenzitet terapije prilagođava apsolutnom riziku za CHD svake osobe pojedinačno. Procena rizika podrazumeva određivanje LDL holesterola u sklopu analize lipoproteina i identifikaciju pratećih determinanti rizika (prisustvo ili odsustvo CHD, drugih kliničkih oblika aterosklerotske bolesti i dijabetesa, pušenje, hipertenzija, niska koncentracija HDL holesterola, porodična anamneza prevremene pojave CHD, starost). U kategoriji najvišeg rizika nalaze se osobe sa CHD i CHD ekvivalentima rizika, čiji je apsolutni rizik od pojave srčane smrti ili nefatalnog infarkta miokarda u narednih 10 godina ≥20%. Drugu kategoriju čine osobe sa dva ili više faktora rizika kod kojih je 10-godišnji rizik <20%. Apsolutni rizik se procenjuje na osnovu Framingham rizik skora. U trećoj kategoriji su osobe sa jednim ili nijednim faktorom rizika. Definisane su preporučene koncentracije LDL holesterola za svaku kategoriju i postižu se korekcijom ishrane i/ili farmakoterapijom. Evropske preporuke za prevenciju kardiovaskularne bolesti (cardiovascular disease, CVD) u kliničkoj praksi preporučuju upotrebu SCO-RE (Systematic COronary Risk Evaluation) tablica za procenu rizika za pojavu CVD, koje podrazumevaju apsolutnu verovatnoću za fatalan ishod CVD u toku 10 godina. Cilj ovog rada je predstavljanje delova NCEP ATP III i evropskih preporuka značajnih za njihovu implementaciju u laboratorijsku praksu.

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Carotid artery stiffness, digital endothelial function, and coronary calcium in patients with essential thrombocytosis, free of overt atherosclerotic disease

Abstract

Background

Patients with myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) are at increased risk for atherothrombotic events. Our aim was to determine if patients with essential thrombocytosis (ET), a subtype of MPNs, free of symptomatic atherosclerosis, have greater carotid artery stiffness, worse endothelial function, greater coronary calcium and carotid plaque burden than control subjects.

Patients and methods

40 ET patients without overt vascular disease, and 42 apparently healthy, age and sex-matched control subjects with comparable classical risk factors for atherosclerosis and Framingham risk of coronary disease were enrolled. All subjects were examined by physical and laboratory testing, carotid echo-tracking ultrasound, digital EndoPat pletysmography and CT coronary calcium scoring.

Results

No significant differences were found between ET patients and controls in carotid plaque score [1 (0-1.25) vs. 0 (0-2), p=0.30], β- index of carotid stiffness [7.75 (2.33) vs. 8.44 (2,81), p=0.23], pulse wave velocity [6,21 (1,00) vs. 6.45 (1.04) m/s; p=0.46], digital reactive hyperemia index [2.10 (0.57) vs. 2.35 (0.62), p=0.07], or augmentation index [19 (3-30) vs. 13 (5-22) %, p=0.38]. Overall coronary calcium burden did not differ between groups [Agatston score 0.1 (0-16.85) vs. 0 (0-8.55), p=0.26]. However, significantly more ET patients had an elevated coronary calcium score of >160 [6/40 vs. 0/42, p < 0.01].

Conclusions

No significant differences between groups were found in carotid artery morphology and function, digital endothelial function or overall coronary calcium score. Significantly more ET patients had an elevated coronary calcium score of >160, indicating high cardiovascular risk, not predicted by the Framingham equation.

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Cardiovascular Risk in Type 2 Diabetic Patients With Asymptomatic Hyperuricemia and Gout

Abstract

Aim: To study the differences in cardiovascular risk between type 2 diabetic and non-diabetic patients with asymptomatic hyperuricemia and gout using the Framingham Risk Score (FRS) and complex multimodal ultrasonography.

Patients and methods: A total of 201 patients participated, divided into two groups: 1/ patients with asymptomatic hyperuricemia (n = 52), and 2/ patients with gout (n = 149). FRS was determined as well as ultrasound parameters, independent predictors of cardiovascular risk: left atrial size (LA), intima-media thickness (IMT) and common carotid artery resistive index (CCARI).

Results: The patients in the two groups were age-matched and conventional cardiovascular risk factors were equally distributed. In the asymptomatic hyperuricemia group, 12 patients (23.1%) had diabetes. In this group, there was no difference in FRS between diabetic and non-diabetic individuals. However, diabetic patients had larger LA, thicker intima-media and higher CCARI. In the gout group 18 subjects (12%) had diabetes, but the FRS, LA, IMT and CCARI values were similar among diabetic and non-diabetic patients. Furthermore, when gout subjects were subdivided according to the presence of tophi, we found that the subgroup having gouty tophi and diabetes had larger LA (p = 0.014) compared to those with gouty tophi without diabetes.

Conclusion: In diabetic patients with asymptomatic hyperuricemia and gouty tophi, a more complex approach for estimation of cardiovascular risk is needed. Our work suggests that diabetes and tophi might potentiate their action on the cardiovascular system.

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Genetic polymorphisms of the CYP1A1, GSTM1, and GSTT1 enzymes and their influence on cardiovascular risk and lipid profile in people who live near a natural gas plant

Abstract

The aim of this cross-sectional study was to see whether genetic polymorphisms of the enzymes CYP1A1, GSTM1, and GSTT1 are associated with higher risk of coronary artery disease (CAD) and whether they affect lipid profile in 252 subjects living near a natural gas plant, who are likely to be exposed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Fasting serum concentrations of biochemical parameters were determined with standard methods. Genetic polymorphisms of CYP 1A1 rs4646903, rs1048943, rs4986883, and rs1799814 were genotyped with polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFPL), while GSTM1 and GSTT1 deletions were detected with multiplex PCR. Cardiovascular risk was assessed with Framingham risk score, and the subjects divided in two groups: >10% risk and ≤10% risk. The two groups did not differ in the genotype frequencies. MANCOVA analysis, which included lipid parameters, glucose, and BMI with sex, age, hypertension and smoking status as covariates, showed a significant difference between the GSTT1*0 and GSTT1*1 allele carriers (p=0.001). UNIANCOVA with same covariates showed that total cholesterol and triglyceride levels were significantly higher in GSTT1*1 allele carriers than in GSTT1*0 carriers (p<0.001 and p=0.006, respectively). Our findings suggest that CYP1A1, GSTM1, and GSTT1 polymorphisms are not associated with the higher risk of CAD, but that GSTT1 affects lipid profile.

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Evaluation of Coronary Risk Score Applications in 10-Year Coronary Heart Risk Estimation

REGICOR Equations. Rev Esp Cardiol 2005; 58 (8): 910-5. Vekić J, Topić A, Zeljković A, Jelić-Ivanović Z, Spasojević-Kalimanovska V. LDL and HDL subclasses and their relationship with Framingham risk score in middleaged Serbian population. Clin Biochem 2007; (40): 310-6. Jovičić S, Ignjatović S, Majkić-Singh N. Comparison of two different methods for cardiovascular risk assessment: Framingham Risk Score and SCORE System. Journal of Med Bioh 2007; 26 (2): 94-7. Topol EJ, Lauer M. The

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Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome and of Cardiovascular Risk Factors

the growing epidemic and its associated pathologies. Obes Rev. 2015;16(1):1-12. 4. Wang H, Sun Y, Yi X, Zhang L. Evaluation of the Framingham risk score and pooled cohort risk equation for prediction of cardiovascular risk in low resource areas: Insights from Asian rural population. Int J Cardiol. 2018;265:237. 5. Fonseca FAH, Izar MCO. Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome and Framingham Risk Score in Vegetarian and Omnivorous Apparently Healthy Men. Arq Bras Cardiol. 2018;110(5):438-439. 6. Vanavanan S, Srisawasdi P, Rochanawutanon M, Kumproa N

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Association of Vitamin D Status with Body Mass Index in Adolescents in Ukraine

body mass index in an urban black community in Mangaung, South Africa. Afr J Prm Health Care Fam Med 8(1): 1210, 2016. 5. Wang S. Epidemiology of vitamin D in health and disease. Nutr Res Rev 22(2): 188-203, 2009 6. Truesdell D, Shin H, Liu PY, Ilich IZ. Vitamin D status and Framingham Risk Score in overweight postmenopausal women. J Womens Health 20(9): 1341- 1348, 2011. 7. Wortsman J, Matsuoka LY, Chen TC et al. Decreased bioavailability of vitamin D in obesity. Am J Clin Nutr 72(3): 690-693, 2000. 8

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