In 1962 Umberto Eco published his Opera aperta. Forma e indeterminazione nelle poetiche contemporanee, in which he dealt with the televised space and its influence on the development of plot in contemporary narratives. The analysis of the aesthetic of television led him to highlight the exclusive capacity of television to transmit events in real time: Live TV.Eco affirms in particular that through the editing in Live TV, the role of choice completely changes in comparison to what happens in the editing phase within the cinematographic narrative. In Live TV, choice becomes a proper composition, a form of narrative, a means of unifying in a discursive way a set of isolated images within the framework of a wider set of events taking place at the same time and intersecting one another. This impromptu narrative brings with it the use of some recursive forms, which represent an important narrative tool enabling a weaving of the narrative space. Eco identified those recursive forms in some jazz figures such as the riff, the recursive form of which allows for the creation of an organic composition full of improvisation. A few years later, the importance of figures of this kind was also noted by , who posited that ritornello has an important function of organizing the exterior space, or chaotic space. Based on these considerations, this paper deals with the phenomenon of repetition, recursivity, and patterns, to bring these concepts into the construction of narrative spaces. The central point of the paper is that the birth of Live TV started a phenomenon of exteriorization of the inner data of the narrative construction. This phenomenon of externalization makes possible the understanding of data through spatial terms, and one starts to use recursive formulas to navigate it.
This paper deals with Parmenides of Elea’s way of inquiry about reality and the opposition emerging from it. In more detail, it analyses how Parmenides’ concepts of logos and doxa present some analogies with Bergson’s thoughts about duration and Time and how these theories influenced the understanding of visual media, especially the cinematographic camera. This survey will allow us to demonstrate that some scientific theories about space that accompanied the development of the cinematographic camera progressively allowed for the birth of a new understanding of this device. In the last section of this study, we will then focus on the way through which the film camera - understood as an intelligent device - passes from the sphere of doxa to the sphere of logos.
References Anderson, Joseph 1996. Reality of Illusion. Carbondale: South Illinois University Press. Andrews, David; Andrews, Christine 2012. ‘FilmStudies and the Biocultural Turn’. - Philosophy and Literature, 36, 1, 58-78. Bordwell, David  1999. ‘The Art Cinema as a Mode of Film Practice’. - Leo Braudy, Marshall Cohen (eds.), Film Theory and Criticism: Introductory Readings. 5th edition. New York: Oxford University Press, 716-724. Bordwell, David 1986. Narration in Fiction Film. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press. Bordwell, David 2002. ‘Intensifi ed
The aim of this study is to describe and measure obstacles of narrative immersion in a film. Inspired by a literature review within both game research and film studies, we propose a circular model to describe the dynamic process of different levels of involvement viewers can be in while watching a film. The evaluation is based on a 3D animation short film we have developed to achieve total immersion among viewers. The methodological design involved an attempt to decrease viewers’ involvement in the animation film by using distractions during the viewing. The study follows a mixed method strategy combining observation, a questionnaire and a structured interview. The results revealed that viewers react very differently to the distractions. For some viewers, the animation film was not the perceptual focus, where others were totally immersed. The number of distractions was not dependent on whether the film was watched individually or in groups, and for all participants, the distractions occurred in certain rhythms.
The article investigates two seemingly conflicting critical approaches of haptic and transgressive cinema, which emerged along with the corporeal turn in film studies, in the late 1990s and early 2000s. While haptics operates with undistinguishable figures and demands extreme closeness and an active caressing gaze, transgression is usually seen from a distance and subverts the social, political and ethical order. The paper attempts an examination of the Austrian avant-garde filmmaker Kurt Kren’s Actionist films and enlightens how these two opposing strategies can be present together. Giving a detailed analysis of the films, the article describes an expanded definition of Linda Williams’s body genres, in order to create a new category of horror: the horror of materiality.
The Hidden Gaze of the Other in Michael Haneke's Hidden
In his 2005 French production Hidden (Caché), Michael Haneke continues disturbing his audience with poignant and stirring images. When Georges and Anne Laurent keep finding on their doorstep videotapes showing the exterior of their house filmed with a hidden camera, they do not realize that trying to trace the identity of the photographer will lead Georges back to his deeply concealed childhood atrocity and gravely affect their present life. With Hidden, Haneke presents a provocative case of Freudian return of the repressed and probes the uncertain grounding and pretentiousness of French national self-importance.
The article attempts an analysis of Hidden from two interconnected perspectives, provided by the use of the Lacanian category of the gaze in relation to film studies and by the application of certain categories derived from post-colonial theory (voiced here by Homi Bhabha). The discussion ventures to demonstrate that the camera-eye "hidden" in its impossible position can be interpreted as a gaze imagined by Georges in the field of the Other. The voyeuristic act of filming also suggests the question of colonial surveillance, which relates to the racial issue underlying the conflict repressed by Georges. Haneke investigates the way in which the symbolic power bestowed on the authority of the French state facilitates discrimination. Georges, a model representative of the civil/civilized society, is shown as rent by primal fears of imaginary savage "terror," desperately trying to fortify his dominion against Algerian aggressors who are otherwise a necessary part of the structure.
The article deals with the extradition of Baltic soldiers from Sweden in 1946 as represented in Per Olov Enquist’s novel The Legionnaires: A Documentary Novel (Legionärerna. En roman om baltutlämningen, 1968) and Johan Bergenstråhle’s film A Baltic Tragedy (Baltutlämningen. En film om ett politiskt beslut Sverige 1945, Sweden, 1970). The theoretical framework is taken from trauma studies and its equivalent within film studies, where trauma is seen as a repeated occurrence of a past event. In this regard, literature and moving images become the means of reaching the traumatic event, a way to relive it. What separates the extradition of the Baltic soldiers from other traumas, such as the Holocaust, is that it functions as a guilt complex related to the failure to prevent the tragedy, which is connected to Sweden’s position of neutrality during World War II and the appeasement of all the warring nations. It is argued that this is a collective trauma created by Enquist’s novel, which blew it into national proportions. However, Bergenstråhle’s film changes the focus of the trauma by downplaying the bad conscience of the Swedes. In this way, the film aims to create new witnesses to the extradition affair. The analysis looks at the reception of both the novel and film in order to explain the two different approaches to the historical event, as well as the two different time periods in which they were produced. The authors argue that the two years that separate the appearance of the novel and the film explain the swing undergone by the political mood of the late 1960s towards a deflated revolution of the early 1970s, when the film arrived on screens nationwide. However, in terms of creating witnesses to the traumatic event, the book and film manage to stir public opinion to the extent that the trauma changes from being slowly effacing to being collectively ‘experienced’ through remembrance. The paradox is that, while the novel still functions as a vivid reminder of the painful aftermath caused by Swedish neutrality during World War II, the film is almost completely forgotten today. The film’s mode of attacking the viewers with an I-witness account, the juxtaposition and misconduct led to a rejection of the narrative by Swedish audiences.
The two-part article Time in Film (Part I. Cinematograph and Modernity, Part II Transformation of Cinematograph into Cinema) is a kind of survey, with the author’s comment, of the most important philosophical and film-studies conceptions which investigate this subject. Film time is examined in two principal aspects: as time arising from the possibility of recording reality by the camera and transforming it (reality) into moving pictures (the film-reality relation), and as time connected with a film’s narrative capabilities (the film-spectator relation). The discussion on this subject is accompanied by a belief in the rich and surprising possibilities of transforming time by man (the creator and the spectator), which film affords. This determines the mental qualities of film time, which should be examined in close relationship to human temporality.
Part two of the article (Przemiana kinematografu w kino [The Transformation of cinematograph into cinema) discusses the issues concerning film time from the perspective of the film-spectator relationship. The study also presents the problems of narrative time and the influence that narrative time exerts on the spectator’s mental sphere. According to Edgar Morin, cinema above all reflects man’s mental links with the world. A great advantage of cinema is the ability to make the past the present and, as it were, to spatialize time. The feature film is capable of creating surprising transformations of time, thereby approximating the human, subjective sense of time, which is fully revealed during sleep. The similarity between film and dream was also the subject of interesting discussions by the Polish film critic Konrad Eberhardt. In his book Film jest snem [Film is dream] he presents his reflections on the links between film and dream and analyses film oneirism using the examples of selected works by the most eminent directors. In contrast, Étienne Souriau, a French aesthetician, made a fundamental distinction between two basic levels of film time: filmophanic presentation (duration of a film show) and the film world (diegetic time). He also pointed out that time manipulations largely enable the rise of new film reality, and significantly influence the audience’s emotions. The article then discusses the differing interpretations of film time proposed by the French linguists Christian Metz and Roland Barthes, and phenomenologist Maurice Merleau- Ponty. The study concludes with an extensive presentation of the film time theory developed the French philosopher Gilles Deleuze.
The article gives a detailed account of his concept of the history of cinema, which is based on the analysis of transformations of narrative time forms. Its two extreme poles are “cinema: movement-image” and “cinema: time-image”. Deuleze argues that the contemporary model of “cinema: movement-image”, exemplified by works e.g. of Alaine Resnais, the French New Wave, Orson Welles, Federico Fellini, and others, evokes mental time: the time of remembrance, mental images, hallucinations, and dreams. According to Deleuze, films create virtual reality, highly approximating the one which another French philosopher Henri Bergson called “pure consciousness” (duration).